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GLOSSARY Information Technology algorithm: A step – by – step method of accomplishing a task. A series of mathematical commands, that cipher and decipher. batch: A group of commands that are executed one at a time. batch File: A file in a DOS / Windows environment with the. bat extension. This file type is executable in DOS or at a Windows command prompt. Batch programs are written in a batch programming language that utilises a superset of standard DOS commands. buffer: A temporary location to store or group information in hardware or software. Buffers are used whenever data is received in sizes that may be different than the ideal size for the hardware or software that uses the buffer. buffered memory: Memory modules that have extra chips on them to support Error Checking and Correcting ( ECC ) functionality. bug: This is commonly an error in design or programming in a hardware device or piece of software. bus topology: This network topology has computers connected to a strand of network cabling that is connected to network repeaters at one end and terminated at the other. cable modem: The device that you attach a coaxial cable from your cable company directly into that can provide you with high speed internet access. channel: It consists of controller card, interface cable and power supply. cheque truncation: It stops the flow of cheques through the banking system and converts it into an electronic processing system. coaxial cable: It consists of a single copper wire, surrounded by a copper braid or foil that acts as a ground. The entire wire is coated with insulation. The cable carries digital signals at high speeds. data – information: Any series of bits, characters or objects that has meaning. Data is stored and transmitted by computers. data compression: Takes something large and makes it smaller. data encryption standard ( DES ): An encryption method developed by IBM in 1977. It uses a private 56 – bit key that is applied to each 64 – bit block of data. data mining: The act of analyzing a database or data warehouse and searching for new facts based on the data. database: An ordered set of data. digital signature: A form of electronic signature that works with a public and private key encryption system and a certificate authority. disk mirroring: Disk mirroring involves two hard drives that are on the same drive controller. The same data is written to both drives over the same channel. disk duplexing: Disk duplexing is much like disk mirroring, but each drive is on a separate controller. dumb terminal: These are hooked up to mainframes and are little more than a monitor attached to a keyboard. All these are good for running programs using the mainframe ‘ s hard drive and memory, thus the ” dumb ” in the name. dynamic signature verification It finds out whether a signature is genuine or not. e – mail: This stands for electronic mail. It is a service provided over the Internet that allows you to send information to another person or list of people. electronic purse: The space in a card is used to store different types of accounts of a user. electronic signature: Any form of electronic identifier, including a digital signature. encryption: The act of altering data to make it unreadable unless you know how to decrypt it. Ethernet: A network topology that is able to send data at 10 Mbits / second. Workstations can exist on the same cable. but only one can communicate at a time. To get by these limitations, switched Ethernet and Fast Ethernet were invented and were also combined. Nowadays, most networking devices are switched fast Ethernet. FTP ( file transfer protocol ): A common method of moving files, from system to system, by using TCP / IP. To work properly, it requires an FTP client to contact an FTP server in order to transmit data back and forth. fault tolerant computer system: The ability of a system to continue operations following failure in one or more components. full duplex: Originally this referred to a communication between a modem and a remote system, where characters were sent both ways over the phone line so that they could be accurately displayed on a terminal. gopher: This is often said to be the first incarnation of the World Wide Web. It is an information source based on textual links, now outdated and superseded by the Web graphical user interface ( GUI ): Any system that uses graphics to represent the functionsof a program. All Windows operating systems are GUIs.Page – 2
half duplex: Originally a modem communications term, half duplex now mainly refers to network communications that transmit in one direction at a time. Also, see duplex and full duplex. host: A generic term used to describe a computer or program that makes a resource available, usually over a network. internet: Global network of networks. It is system that allows user computers to exchange data, messages, etc. LAN: A small and an isolated network at one office or physical location. Most office computers are connected to a UAN, but may also be connected to the Internet or a WAN. management information systems / services ( MIS ): The department at most companies that provides real – time information to the management. MODEM ( Modulator / Demodulator ): A device that serves as a bridge between your digital computer and some form of analogue line used to transmit data, such as a phone line ( standard modem ) or analogue cable connection ( cable modem ). multiplexer ( mux ): A logic circuit that sends one of several inputs out over a single output channel node: One computer / machine or address on a network. If you managed a network with 10 printers, 50 servers and 150 client machines, you could say you managed a network with 210 nodes. online: This term refers to anything that is on the Internet and electronically transmitted. optical fibre: Provides high quality transmission at very high speeds. packet: A collection of information. The term is most often used to refer to the chunks of information sent over computer networks. peripheral: Any device that is not part of the motherboard, aside from memory and the CPU. Forexample, video cards, sound cards, modems and hard drives are peripherals. point – to – point protocol ( PPP ): The mode of transport used to connect a computer to the Internet via a dial – up adapter ( a modem ). protocol: A general behavior that computers and network devices must follow to understand one another. real – time: Tasks that are time – critical and must happen in our time ( as opposed to the much faster computer ). The user interface should always be real – time. If you move the mouse, your pointer should move on screen immediately. Unfortunately. Windows can bog down enough, so that this does not happen.
opology: A network that is connected on both ends to one source, with client machines hanging off of the ring If you break the ring, all computers in the ring lose connectivity. RTGS: Real time gross settlement system. Instant credit through the RBI clearing system safe mode: An operating mode used in Microsoft operating systems. It was introduced in Windows 95 first and was loaded automatically, if Windows 95 crashed during the boot up. You can access Safe Mode if you press the ” F8 ” key when new Windows operating systems are booting — this will bring you to a menu that allows you to boot into safe mode. Safe Mode boots the operating system with minimal driver support. The purpose of it is to help resolve boot problems. server: A machine whose sole purpose is to supply data so that other machines can use that data, simplex transmission: It transmits data in one direction only, smart card: A plastic card with an Integrated chip installed.. standalone: A hardware device or piece of software that works with nothing else required. star topology: A network topology that has network hubs at the centre, with all connected computers linked back to the hub by a single cable. Thus, if one cable goes down, the rest of the computers can still communicate. SWIFT: Society for worldwide inter – bank financial telecommunication is an instant transfer of messages internationally. token ring: A network topology pioneered by IBM and eventually made into the IEEE 802. 5 standard. Token ring networks are wired, in a ring topology and nodes on the network pass a token around. Whichever node has the token is allow ed to use the network. Usenet newsgroups: Also referred to simply as “ new ‘ sgroups, ” Usenet newsgroups are a huge bunch of Internet discussion groups that replicate across the Internet every so often. vein recognition: Uses unique vein structure of the human body to identify individuals.
visual recognition: Digitizing a picture of a person, storing in a smart card then using it for identificaton. voice recognition system: It compares voices with original recorded. VSAT: An outdoor small dish antenna interfacing with a satellite.Page – 3
WAN ( Wide Area Network ): Any network that spans more than one location. Typically at least ons of the locations is fairly remote. WAP ( Wireless Application Protocol ): A proposed standard that allows for transfer of data securely between wireless devices, such as, PDAs, cell phones, pagers or other combinations of those devices. WAP supports many different wireless networks. world wide web ( Www or Web ): This is basically a means of communicating text, graphics and ether multimedia objects over the Internet.