Web technologys

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Web technologys

The Web technology platform is a collection of web related media types that are applicable to web based applications, sites, and web documents. The Web

technology platform covers the following areas:

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  1. Web accessibility requirements
  2. The user impact for individual requirements
  3. The code level enhancements required for web accessibility
  4. Design and evaluation techniques that should be used during design, development and testing phases

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The web technology platform is divided into general areas of accessibility practice. For example, the images section provides information on accessibility

issues and techniques relating to Images. Each media type such as images is broken into best practices. Each best practice is split into sub-sections relating

to a best practice name, short description of the best practices (including user impact), compliant and non-compliant examples, remediation recommendations

and different evaluation techniques. Each best practices in the Web technology platform is associated with one or more accessibility standards. These accessibility

standards include but are not limited to Section 508 (revised) of the US Rehabilitation Act, WCAG 2.0, and WCAG 2.1.

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Animation

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Ensure alternatives to animation provide equivalent functionality

Ensure animated content is sufficiently described in text

Ensure blinking or flashing elements are avoided

Ensure decorative animations are played a limited number of times

Ensure elements blink or flash in a safe threshold

Ensure screen transition animation settles within 5 seconds

Ensure scripts that cause moving or slow blinking are avoided

Ensure the marquee element is avoided

Provide a non-animated equivalent or method to step through animation

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ARIA and Dynamic Content

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Avoid forced focus changes that are not user-initiated

Ensure auto-updating dynamic content can be paused, stopped, or hidden

Ensure content updates define focus updates appropriately

Ensure that dynamic content is rendered in-line with the controls that change it

Ensure that textual equivalent information is updated appropriately when an element’s state changes

Inform assistive technologies of changes in content

Provide a means for quickly navigating to frequently updated areas

Provide an accessible alert method for content changes that occur without explicit user knowledge

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ARIA

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Avoid inappropriate use of ARIA roles, states, and properties

Ensure ARIA regions, landmarks and HTML sections are identifiable

Ensure ARIA roles, states, and properties are valid

Ensure elements that use ARIA provide non-ARIA fallback accessible content when accessibility is not supported

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Live Regions

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Ensure live regions define atomicness unless they are not atomic

Ensure live regions define controlling elements when present

Ensure non-uniformly updated live regions use the ARIA busy attribute

Ensure relevant changes for live regions are explicitly defined if the change is not text or a node addition

Ensure that status messages can be determined programmatically without receiving focus

Indicate live regions for dynamically changing content

Provide long descriptions for complex live regions

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Authoring Tools

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Ensure authoring tools are capable of prompting authors to create content that conforms to WCAG 2 Level A/AA and conformance requirements

Ensure authoring tools capable of exporting to PDF 1.7 allow for the author to create PDF/UA conformant documents

Ensure authoring tools preserve the information required for accessibility when converting content from one format to another or saving content in different

formats

Ensure when templates are provided a variety of accessibility conformant templates are available

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Color and Contrast

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Ensure active user interface components have sufficient contrast

Ensure all parts of charts and infographics required for understanding the content have sufficient contrast

Ensure color is not the sole means of communicating information

Ensure color is not the sole means of indicating error messages

Ensure color is not used as the sole method of indicating selection

Ensure content with color conveys the same meaning without color, directly in the content, on-screen, and without additional user interaction

Ensure link text provides sufficient contrast

Ensure parts of graphical objects essential for understanding content have sufficient contrast

Ensure sufficient contrast is provided when background images are not available.

Ensure text and images of text provide sufficient contrast

Ensure text background color is specified when the foreground is specified and vice versa

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CSS

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Avoid use of the before, after, pseudo elements for non-decorative content

Ensure containing elements allow text resize without loss of functionality.

Ensure documents are readable without style sheets

Ensure screen reader specific content is rendered off-screen rather than hidden or not displayed

Ensure the reading order of content and elements are correct when viewed without style sheets

Provide text equivalents for icon fonts

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Custom Controls

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Ensure custom controls are keyboard accessible

Ensure custom controls provide proper textual name, role, and state information

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Calendar Controls

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Ensure calendar components are keyboard accessible

Ensure calendar components do not use color alone to convey selection/meaning

Ensure calendar components include data tables that properly identify header and data cells

Ensure that non-modal calendars are rendered inline with the controls that activate them

Ensure that when calendars are activated and deactivated focus moves appropriately

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Dialogs

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Ensure dialogs use proper structure

Ensure keyboard focus returns properly from dialogs

Ensure links that spawn dialogs indicate the fact

Ensure non-modal dialogs are rendered inline with the controls that activate them

Ensure that dialogs can be closed via the keyboard

Ensure that keyboard focus remains within modal dialogs

Ensure that when dialogs are activated focus moves appropriately

Provide a descriptive dialog title

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Multi-column List View Controls

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Ensure selectable rows are keyboard accessible

Ensure sortable headers can be triggered from the keyboard

Ensure sortable headers include proper text alternatives

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Page Tabs

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Ensure page tabs provide state and role

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Standalone, attached, and context menus

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Ensure fields indicate attached menus

Ensure keyboard and programmatic focus moves to opened menus

Ensure keyboard focus returns properly when menus are closed

Ensure menus can be opened from the keyboard

Ensure sub-menu items are keyboard accessible and communicate sub menu structure

Ensure that menus are rendered inline with the controls that activate them

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Trees and Outlines

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Ensure tree and outline node components are provided in the same link

Ensure tree and outline components programmatically provide level information

Ensure tree and outline components programmatically provide position information

Ensure tree and outline components programmatically provide state information

Ensure tree and outline components provide a programmatic name and role

Ensure tree and outline node components are accessible from the keyboard

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Data Tables

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Avoid using nested data tables

Avoid using sub-tables in header elements

Ensure complex data table headers are properly identified

Ensure complex data table headers are used in a valid fashion

Ensure complex data table’s implicit row header cells define scope or use th

Ensure data table header elements are provided in the same table as content

Ensure data table headers are properly identified

Ensure data table headers cells are not blank

Ensure data tables are formatted using table elements

Ensure data tables are not used to also layout content which is unrelated to the data

Ensure data tables do not contain blank rows or columns for presentation purposes

Ensure distinct tabular data is provided in separate data tables

Ensure headers and cells are properly associated

Ensure implicit row header cells use th elements with row scope

Ensure table captions are provided explicitly

Ensure table data/headers in separate columns is rendered in separate table cells

Ensure table headers are used in a valid fashion

Provide a table summary when a description of the table structure is needed

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Embedded Media and Object Elements

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Embed Flash Player content in a manner that exposes accessibility

Ensure applets provide valid text equivalents

Ensure audio that plays automatically can be controlled within the containing page

Ensure embedded and linked non-HTML media provide a link to an accessible plug-in

Ensure embedded elements and canvas elements provide a meaningful text equivalent

Ensure embedded objects are device-independent

Ensure embedded objects are directly accessible

Ensure the keyboard can be used to navigate through or past the embedded content

Ensure video, multimedia or animations that play automatically can be controlled within the containing page

Provide a text transcript for audio only presentations

Provide text equivalents for object, audio, and video elements

Provide text transcript or audio track of video only presentations

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Focus Control

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Avoid using event handlers that trigger focus or context changes on user input

Ensure interactive elements can be visually distinguished from non-actionable ones

Ensure keyboard focus is indicated visually

Ensure new windows do not open without user control

Ensure that content that appears on hover may be moved over with a pointer without disappearing

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Forms

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Avoid improper nesting of form elements and links

Avoid use of placeholder values to label or explain input

Ensure accessible usage of time based sessions and timed responses

Ensure CAPTCHAs are accessible both visually and audibly

Ensure checkboxes and radio buttons are positioned to the left of the labels

Ensure elements with multiple labels are rendered appropriately

Ensure error messages are explicitly indicated at the beginning of a form after submit

Ensure form component hierarchy is indicated in a textual manner

Ensure form field constraints and errors are associated with their corresponding field

Ensure form field labels are unique

Ensure form fields are laid out in an intuitive order

Ensure option elements in large lists are grouped

Ensure radio button groups are properly formed

Ensure rich edit entry fields are directly accessible or provide an alternative entry method

Ensure that common input fields allow autocomplete and use standard autocomplete values

Ensure that instructive text is placed at the beginning of a form

Ensure the visible text label for a control is included in the control’s accessible name

Ensure timing is not an essential part of functionality except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events

Provide a clear indication of fields in error for information that is submitted

Provide a consistent implementation of error and alert mechanisms

Provide a valid label for form fields

Provide alternatives for audio cues

Provide an indication of current location in search results

Provide error prevention for legal commitments, financial transactions, test responses, and data changes

Provide fieldsets for groups of form controls

Provide suggestions for error messages when known

Provide valid, concise, and meaningful alternative text for image buttons

Provide visual labels or instructions for user input

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Frames

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Ensure blank frames set text appropriately

Ensure frame titles are meaningful

Ensure frames do not use absolute sizing

Ensure frames utilize markup files as their source

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Image Maps

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Ensure area alternative text is meaningful and concise

Provide alternatives for server-side image maps

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Images

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Avoid redundant alt text for images with adjacent text or links

Ensure alternative text for images is spelled and spaced correctly

Ensure complex images provide sufficient descriptions

Ensure CSS background images that convey meaning have textual and visible equivalents

Ensure images provide informative alternative text

Ensure text is used instead of images of text when technology allows unless it is essential

Provide accessible names for progress bars and meters

Provide alternative text for images

Provide mathematical formulas in appropriate markup

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Charts and Graphs

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Ensure charts and graphs provide an informative and visible alternative description

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Keyboard Accessibility

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Avoid placing inactive elements in the focus order

Avoid the sole use of device-dependent event handlers

Avoid the sole use of the title attribute

Ensure accelerator/shortcut keys do not conflict with standard browser keystrokes

Ensure all active elements receive keyboard focus or can be activated with the keyboard

Ensure all interactive functionality is operable with the keyboard

Ensure all interactive functionality is operable with the keyboard (No exceptions)

Ensure all read-only edit elements can receive keyboard focus

Ensure biometric means are not the sole means of providing identification or control

Ensure JavaScript functionality is accessible from the keyboard

Ensure keyboard focus is not trapped

Ensure that character key shortcuts without modifiers can be reconfigured or deactivated

Ensure that content that appears on hover or focus may be dismissed by the user

Ensure the focus order of interactive elements on the page is logical

Provide documentation for non-standard or alternative keyboard commands that are required for access

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Language and Content

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Avoid line breaks within words

Document accessibility and compatibility features

Ensure alternative pages are not used unless absolutely necessary

Ensure changes in natural language are identified inline

Ensure content that appears on hover or focus is persistent until dismissed, not valid, or the trigger is removed

Ensure documented accessibility features of the platform are not disrupted

Ensure ICT support services provides information on accessibility and compatibility features

Ensure instructions do not rely solely on sensory characteristics

Ensure pages that provide alternatives for non-accessible pages provide equivalent functionality

Ensure short quotations are wrapped in q elements

Ensure text direction changes are indicated inline

Ensure that elements with the same functionality are consistently identified across pages

Ensure the language of a document is set

Provide support for effective communicate to support services

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Layout Tables

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Ensure absolute sizing in tables is avoided

Ensure layout tables do not contain structural markup

Ensure layout tables indicate their use for presentation purposes

Ensure layout tables linearize properly

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Links

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Ensure alternative text for image links is informative

Ensure link text is meaningful when taken out of context

Ensure link text is meaningful within context

Ensure links do not directly target images

Ensure related links are grouped

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Lists

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Ensure implicit list markup is avoided

Ensure list items are found in a list container

Ensure lists for indentation are not used

Ensure sub-lists are marked up properly

Ensure utilizing tables to provide lists of information is avoided

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Mobile

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Avoid restricting the operation or viewing of content in different display orientations

Ensure events triggered by single-point activation can be cancelled

Ensure that functionality can be operated through a single pointer except when a multi-point or path-based gesture is essential

Ensure that motion is not the only method to activate user interface components

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Multimedia

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Multimedia Alternatives

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Ensure auditory multimedia content is sufficiently and accurately described in the captions

Ensure visual multimedia content is sufficiently described in the audio portion of the multimedia

Provide an alternative or synchronized audio description for video (which includes audio) or other multimedia

Provide synchronized audio description for video (which includes audio) or other multimedia

Provide synchronized captions for live video (which includes audio) or other multimedia

Provide synchronized captions for video (which includes audio) or other multimedia

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Multimedia Control Playback

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Ensure audio is not played automatically on load

Ensure multimedia playback can be controlled

Provide shortcut keystrokes for media playback controls

Provide user controls for the selection of captions at the same menu level as the user controls for volume or program selection.

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Navigation

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Ensure a valid skip link target is present and is located appropriately

Ensure event handlers that trigger navigation or form submission are avoided

Ensure meta-redirects are avoided

Ensure pages do not automatically refresh

Ensure pages use a consistent navigation structure

Ensure speech is not the only means to access content

Ensure there is more than one way to locate a web page in a set of pages

Provide a mechanism for skipping past repetitive content

Provide a mechanism for skipping past repetitive links by means of visible links.

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Page Structure

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Avoid the use of implicit headings

Avoid unnecessary use of heading elements

Ensure blockquote is used for long quotes

Ensure combined text elements contain proper spacing

Ensure content is visible to assistive technologies

Ensure content that is intended to be hidden from all users is not rendered by assistive technology

Ensure heading level matches the heading’s visual importance/level

Ensure headings and labels are descriptive and unique

Ensure hr elements utilize relative sizing

Ensure markup documents contain well-formed elements

Ensure page reading order coincides with the focus order of the page

Ensure pages use the title element

Ensure proper markup is used to mark emphasized or special text formatting

Ensure shape and location are not the sole methods used to communicate information or hierarchy

Ensure that proper quotation markup is used

Ensure that the reading order of content is logical

Ensure the use of ASCII layouts is avoided

Ensure using ASCII art to simulate markup is avoided

Provide an informative, context-sensitive page title

Provide keyboard access to scrollable content

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Typography

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Ensure apps allow user preferences from platform settings for color, contrast, font type, font size, and focus cursor.

Ensure pages reflow without requiring two-dimensional scrolling without loss of content or functionality

Ensure text can be resized

Ensure that content and functionality is available when the user overrides text spacing properties

Limit the amount of horizontal scrolling required

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