Communication Skills

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Communication Skills
means how do we communicate with each other. The way of presenting our information is very important. Communication Skills include
those areas which deal with our talking, writing, expressing our views. By reading this chapter you will understand how to communicate with others decently.
This includes the overall development of your personality.
Session 1: Methods of Communication
The word ‘communication’ comes from the Latin word commūnicāre, meaning ‘to share’. Clear and concise communication is of immense importance in work and
business environment as there are several parties involved.

Communication has three important parts:

  1. Transmitting — The sender transmits the message through one medium or another.
  2. Listening — The receiver listens or understands the message.
  3. Feedback — The receiver conveys their understanding of the message to the sender in the form of feedback to complete the communication cycle.
    Communication Process and Elements
    The various elements of the communication cycle are:
    Sender: the person beginning the communication.
    Message: the information that the sender wants to convey.
    Channel: the means by which the information is sent.
    Receiver: the person to whom the message is sent.
    Feedback: the receiver’s acknowledgment and response to the message.
    Methods of Communication
    ·       Face-to-face informal
    ·       communication
    ·       e-mail
    ·       Notices/Posters
    ·       Business Meetings
    ·       social networks, message, phone call for communication, newsletter, blog, etc
    Choosing the right method of communication depends on
    • Target audience
    • Costs
    • Kind/type of information
    • Urgency/priority

Session 2: Verbal Communication
Verbal communication includes sounds, words, language, and speech. Speaking is one of the most effective and commonly used ways of communicating. It helps
in expressing our emotions in words.
Type of Verbal Communication
Interpersonal Communication: This form of communication takes place between two individuals and is thus a one-on-one conversation. It can be formal or
Written Communication: This form of communication involves writing words. It can be letters, circulars, reports, manuals, SMS, social media chats, etc.
It can be between two or more people.
Small Group Communication: This type of communication takes place when there are more than two people involved. Each participant can interact and converse
with the rest.
Public Communication: This type of communication takes place when one individual addresses a large gathering.
Advantages of Verbal Communication
It is an easy mode of communication in which you can exchange ideas by saying what you want and get a quick response.
Disadvantages of Verbal Communication
Since verbal communication depends on written or spoken words, sometimes the meanings can be confusing and difficult to understand if the right words are
not used.
Mastering Verbal Communication
Think Before You Speak
list of 2 items
 • Think about your topic.
 • Think about the most effective ways to make your listeners
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Understand the topic.
list of 9 items
 Write or note down whatever you plan to say.
 Concise and Clear
 Speak clearly, loudly and at moderate speed.
 Be sure the information you want to share is to the point.
 Do not repeat the same sentences.
 Confidence and Body Language
 Be confident.
 Maintain eye contact, stand straight and be attentive.
 Be friendly.
list end
Session 3: Non-verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication is the expression or exchange of information or messages without using any spoken or written word.
Importance of Non-verbal Communication
In our day-to-day communication
• 55% communication is done using body movements, face, arms, etc.
• 38% communication is done using voice, tone, pauses, etc.
• only 7% communication is done using words.
Types of Non-verbal Communication
•   Facial Expressions
•   Posture
•   Gestures or Body Language
•   Touch
•   Space
•   Eye Contact
•   Paralanguage : tone, speed and volume of our voice.
Examples of Visual Communication
Session 4: Communication Cycle and the Importance of Feedback 
For effective communication, it is important that the sender receives an acknowledgement from the receiver about getting the message across. While a sender
sends information, the receiver provides feedback on the received message.
Types of Feedback
•   Positive Feedback
•   Negative Feedback
•   No Feedback
A good feedback is one that is:
• Specific: Avoid general comments. Try to include examples to clarify your statement. Offering alternatives rather than just giving advice allows the
receiver to decide what to do with your feedback.
• Timely: Being prompt is the key, since feedback loses its impact if delayed for too long.
• Polite: While it is important to share feedback, the recipient should not feel offended by the language of the feedback.
• Offering continuing support: Feedback sharing should be a continuous process. After offering feedback, let recipients know you are available
for support.
Importance of Feedback
• It validates effective listening: The person providing the feedback knows they have been understood (or received) and that their feedback
provides some value.
• It motivates: Feedback can motivate people to build better work relationships and continue the good work that is being appreciated.
• It is always there: Every time you speak to a person, we communicate feedback so it is impossible not to provide one.
• It boosts learning: Feedback is important to remain focussed on goals, plan better and develop improved products and services.
• It improves performance: Feedback can help to form better decisions to improve and increase performance.
Session 5: Barriers to Effective Communication
What is Effective Communication?
Effective communication follows the basic principles of professional communication skills.
Barriers to Effective Communication
Physical Barriers
Physical barrier is the environmental and natural condition that act as a barrier in communication in sending message from sender to receiver. Not being
able to see gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less effective.
Linguistic Barriers
The inability to communicate using a language is known as language barrier to communication. Language barriers are the most common communication barriers,
which cause misunderstandings misinterpretations between people
Interpersonal Barriers
Barriers to interpersonal communication occur when the sender’s message is received differently from how it was intended.
Organisational Barriers
Organisations are designed on the basis of formal hierarchical structures that follow performance standards, rules and regulations, procedures, policies,
behavioural norms, etc. All these affect the free flow
of communication in organisations
Cultural Barriers
Cultural barriers is when people of different cultures are unable to understand each other’s customs, resulting in inconveniences and difficulties.People
sometimes make stereotypical assumptions about others based on their cultural background
Ways to Overcome Barriers to Effective Communication
• Use simple language
• Do not form assumptions on culture, religion or geography
• Try to communicate in person as much as possible
• Use visuals
• Take help of a translator to overcome differences in language
• Be respectful of other’s opinions
7 C’s of Communication

Session 6: Writing Skills — Parts of Speech 
Writing skills are part of verbal communication and include e-mails, letters, notes, articles, SMS/chat, blogs, etc.
Capitalisation Rules
Punctuation : Full stop, Comma, Question mark, Exclamation mark
Basic Parts of Speech
The part of speech indicates how a particular word functions in meaning as well as grammatically within the sentence. Some examples are nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, verbs ,adverbs , Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections
Session 7: Writing Skills — Sentences Active and Passive Sentences
Types of Sentences

  1. Statement or Declarative Sentence
  2. Question or Interrogative Sentence
  3. Emotion/Reaction or Exclamatory Sentenc4. Order or Impe rative Sentence
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