Unit 1: Theory of Communication
Concept of Communication
The English word ‘communication’ has been derived from the Latin word, ‘Communicare’ which means
to impart or participate or to transmit. The word ‘Communicare’ is derived from the root ‘Communis’
which means to make common or to share.
Communication is 1) the activity or process of sharing or exchanging ideas, feelings, information,
experience between two or more persons; 2) an act or instance of transmitting; 3) the information
actually communicated by some means.
Definitions of communication:
1) The Oxford English Dictionary defines communication as “the action of conveying or exchanging
information and ideas.”
2) Peter Little defines communication as “the process by which information is transmitted between
individuals and or organizations so that an understanding response results.”
3) Allen Lui (Louis) defines communication as “ Communication is the sum of all the things one person
does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It is a bridge of meaning. It
involves a systematic process of telling, listening, understanding and responding.”
4) Keith Davis defines communication as “Communication is the transfer of information and
understanding from one person to another.”
William G. Scott defines business communication as “Administrative communication is a process which
involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of
eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals.”
The last definition covers 4 aspects of administrative communication, as follows:
1) The sender’s ability to transmit his own ideas accurately.
2) The receiver’s mental ability to get the same idea as were transmitted i.e. accurate replication.
3) The feedback or the receiver’s response.
4) Eliciting action which will help to achieve the goals.
The process of communication involves a series of stages:
1) An idea arises in the mind of the sender, which he wants to share.
2) The sender encodes the idea in the form of a ‘message’.
3) The sender chooses some medium / channel to put across the message.
4) The receiver receives the message.
5) The receiver decodes – absorbs, understands, interprets the message.
6) The receiver sends feedback or his response.
The components or elements of the communication process are as follows:
1) The sender or the communicator
2) The message
4) The medium / channel
5) The receiver
Importance of feedback in the process of communicationEffective feedback, both positive and negative, is very helpful. Feedback is valuable information that will
be used to make important decisions.
After getting the meaning of the message‘, the receiver provides feedback‘ which he =encodes‘ in the
form of a response/reaction/reply to the message. Feedback plays an important part in the
communication process, because it is desired and expected by both the sender‘ and the receiver‘. The
sender‘ wants to know whether and how his =message‘ has been received, and the =receiver‘, either
consciously or unconsciously, usually provides a sign indicating that he has received the message.
It should be noted that feedback may be positive or negative. Positive feedback indicates to the sender
the fact that his message has been received, understood, and accepted; and that he can proceed to the
next point. Negative feedback tells the sender that his message has not been properly understood. It,
therefore, functions as a corrective, as it makes the =sender‘ realize the defects or flaws in his manner
of encoding. He will, therefore, have to encode the same message in a different way, so as to enable the
=receiver‘ to understand it.
Feedback may be immediate or delayed. In the case of interpersonal communication it is quick, as the
sender is able to observe the response/reaction (e.g. a smile, nod, frown etc.) when he is conveying the
message. He can also guess whether the =receiver‘ agrees or disagrees with him.
However, in the case of a letter, feedback may be delayed as the =receiver‘ will take time to reply.
Sometimes, feedback is obtained indirectly, by observing the subsequent change of behaviour on the
part of the =receiver‘.
Feedback is very important in business. It is important for the businessperson to know whether his/her
clients and customers are satisfied with the products and services, or whether s/he needs to make
changes. Feedback from employees is also necessary to improve the performance of an organization.
The diagrammatical representation of the communication process can be shown as follows:
How to achieve effective communication:
1) Communicate for a purpose
2) Compose message with care
3) Study the receiver
4) Select appropriate medium
5) Provide feedback
6) Act promptly on receiving feedback.
Benefits of effective communication:
- Healthy relations
- Better performance
- High morale
- Good image unity
- Reaching final goals
- Smooth functioning
- Greater efficiency
- Higher productivity
- Effective decision-making
- Co-operation & Co-ordination
Students are suppose to prepare notes on their own.
Emergence of communication as a key concept in the corporate and global world.
Impact of technology enabled communication : Types – Internet, Blogs, E-mail, Moodle, Social
media (Facebook, twitter and Whatsapp advantages and disadvantages)
Sender Channel / Medium Receiver
Channels and Objectives of Communication
1) To get the work done.
2) To prepare the workforce for challenges
3) To tackle misinformation & suspicion arising out of it
4) To create a feeling of pride & confidence in the workforce I order to motivate it and to
boost its morale.
5) To transmit work ethics & the organization‘s culture.
Discipline Lack of vision & arbitrary decision making can
prove detrimental and harmful to the
Implementation of orders happen
Balance in sharing information is important so
is indicious use of discretion
Tasks & positions can be well defined Delay implementation of decisions
Clarity in the minds of employees about
their responsibility, avoids confusion
Oral communication leads to information loss,
distraction & lack of accountability
It helps in uniting different level of
authority & brings in team spirit
Absence of feedback mechanistic can lead to
frustration, lack of trust in authority & feel
1) To forward employee-feedback
2) To report on official matters
3) To give voice on the difficulties, grievances, complaints, dissatisfaction, work related
demands of employees
4) To invite suggestion, creativity & participation in problem solving
5) To create a sense of belonging through participation
Employees participation Failure on the part of subordinates to take
initiative & participate in the decision making
Trust , emotional bonding,
understanding & cooperation between
management & employees
Long line of authority, inability of the seniors
to listen or to act, create barriers
Employees enthusiastic Delays due to slow transmission, distortion of
communication further hamper the process
Authority earns subordinates
cooperation response to management‘s
Employees failure to handle upwards
1) Chain should be start
2) Executives should be trained for excellent listening skills
3) The organizations atmosphere should be conducive
While Decisions are finally taken by the top management, there is room for employee
feedback, communication, wherein the management interacts with employees, invites
their participation in decision making, creates mechanisms to address their concerns
without compromising on its measures of control is called vertical communication.
Horizontal / Lateral Communication:
1) To exchange official information
2) To create understanding and team spirit among members
3) To solve difficulties
4) To seek and extend co-operation
5) To save time when quick decisions have to be made
Helps in clarifying doubts, taking quick
decisions & eliminating mistrust
Ungoverned horizontal communication to leads
It brings about better coordination,
builds team spirit and ensure faster
implementation of decisions
Employees tend to waste precious time arguing
and debating over issues and decisions
It also check the grapevine
1) Employee must learn to extend cooperation & work towards achieving goals
2) The authority should delegate responsibilities to subordinates in order to quicken the
pace of work.
3) Horizontal Communication needs to be monitored as its uncontrolled transmission can
invite problems for the organization.
Diagonal / Crosswise
1) Speeds up the flow of information
2) Creates healthy work relationships
3) Brings in proper co-ordination among different sections
4) Makes problem solving easy
5) Controls distortion & dilution of message because of direct, inter leave communication
1) Organizations atmosphere should be trust & transparency
2) Proper training or orientation should be given to employees to handle diagonal
Speeds up the flow of information It is likely to bypass the vertical chain of
commands. This may create doubts in the
minds of bypassed superiors
Creates healthy work relationships It may be seen as interference
Brings in proper co-ordination among
It may create doubts the superior‘s
accountability & cooperation
Makes problem solving easy Decisions thus taken may be resisted by the
bypassed authority and could spoil the
Controls distortion & dilution of
message because of direct, inter leave
Grapevine is the plant or creeper on which grapes grow. The grapevine may glow or
move in any direction with the support of its tendrils. In the some way, informal
communication can move in any direction with the support of informal groups.
How it is generated?
1) People need to share & agree on important opinions & attitudes to feel that they belong
to a group
2) People need to share their hopes & ambitions with superiors
3) People need to express emotions such as joy, anger, hostility etc.
4) Because of the rigidity of the formal, structure, the people feel the need to bypass
―official channels‖ for the sake of expediency in getting & giving information about
performance on the job.
The various types of grapevine are:
2) Single strand chain
3) Gossip Chain
4) Probability Chain
5) Cluster Chain
Grapevine communication travels fast,
It has vast reach
Negative information half truths, personalized
accounts of events, gross distortions are passed
on by the render
The content because of its immense
personal appeal are readily believable
It often leads to lack of motivation & moral of
Management must be aware of the power of grapevine, it can often fail the formal
system, it is difficult to trace its origin & is difficult to stop or control completely.
Guidelines for Management
1) Circulate information that is accurate & strengthen upward channels of communication
2) Delegate responsibility & entrust employees with specific responsibility to strengthen
trust between itself & employees
3) Invite suggestion farm grievance & redress cells, publishing house journals, make
effective use of bulletins, notice boards & employee welfare schemes
4) Either cut the grapevine with official communication or use grapevine itself to
circulate official information
1) Information :
About organization, rules, regulations, culture, products, market, research, decisions,
vision, mission, goal etc.
2) Advice & Counseling:
Providing guidance is yet another objective of downward communication, seniors,
experts can help
employees with troubleshooting & crisis management, assist them in solving problems
that can forge bonds between employees & the managements.
3) Order & Instructions:
Orders & instruction means is giving directions to the employees. Any authoritative
communication issued by a superior in order to monitor / govern the behavior of a junior
is know as a ‗order‘ when an orders is split furthers to meet specific issue, it becomes
To suggest means to propose or put forward an idea for consideration both upward &
communication. Employee participation & involvement encourage creative thinking &
exposure to employee‘s talent. Employees feel valued & develop a sense of belonging.
Persuasion is an effort to influence the mind, belief system or attitude of a person to
bring about the desired change in his / her behavior.
4 Steps to take while persuading :
2) Preparing the Receiver
3) Deliver the message
4) Prompting action
1) Persuader‘s personal character & reputation
2) Persuader must make suitable & effective emotional appeal
3) Persuader must logically present his ideas, views etc. There must be reasonable
presentation of the persuaded messages.
6) Education & Training:
At the management level, at the employee‘s level and at the level of outside public.
Motivation means that inner state that energizes activates or moves and which directs
behavior towards certain goal.
Setting up the right kind of justice & rewards system & inviting the employee‘s
participation in decision making can create the right kind of emotional environment
8) Raising the moral of Employees:
Consequences of high moral & low moral.
Management can boost the moral of its employees by giving basis infrastructural
support, creating systems that reward effort, strengthening its official channels of
communication, encouraging upward
Communication, controlling the grapevine & taking measures to earn the trust of
Certain strategies opted by MNCs to boost morale of the employees:
- Keep employees feeling their work is more than just a job.
Everyone wants to feel that his or her work has a higher purpose. Sometimes,
though, that purpose gets lost in the day-to-day grind. One of the key ways that
Snagajob.com, an online job-search company, based in Glen Allen, Virginia,
inspires its 126 employees is by sharing “I Got a Job!” stories that show them the
value of their work. Circulated by email, the real-life stories come from grateful
job seekers who recently landed a new job through the company’s website.
- Take time to creatively celebrate accomplishments.
It’s natural to focus on what’s ahead rather than reflect on how much has been
achieved. Taking time to reflect, though, helps employees appreciate how much
they have done. All departments at Acuity, a financial-services company based in
Sheboygan, Wis., are asked each year to recognize their own work by providing a
list of significant accomplishments of their team. The lists are reviewed by Acuity
officers, who select the 100 most outstanding achievements for inclusion in a “Top
100 Accomplishments” list. The latest list was designed as a book, Acuity World
Records, with the help of Guinness World Records, and given to all 831
- Grant time off to employees to pursue projects they are passionate about.
Personal projects can provide an energizing break from regular responsibilities and
can serve as a source of innovation for a company. Atlassian, a developer of
collaboration software based in Sydney, encourages creativity during its “FedEx
Day.” During this event, all 62 employees can work on anything that excites them
— as long as it is somewhat related to Atlassian products or processes, can be
completed in the allotted time, and is fun. Employees have from 2 p.m. on a
Thursday until 4 p.m. Friday, giving them roughly 24 hours to deliver a project
(thus the name, FedEx Day). Then at a presentation, participants show off the
results of their projects. From these ideas, Atlassian has adopted more than a
dozen projects, ranging from product upgrades to process improvements.
- Mix up the company’s usual way of doing things.
Departing from the customary routine of meetings and cubicle life can go a long
way toward building morale. The accounting firm Ehrhardt Keefe Steiner &
Hottman, based in Denver, uses the concept of neighborhoods to shake things up.
All 387 employees are organized into neighborhoods, based on the floors or
sections of floors in each office. These groups have regular get-togethers and
shape the contours of meetings. For example, during an all-employee meeting day,
as the firm staged a neighborhood basketball tournament, each group came up
with team names, homemade jerseys, mascots, and cheerleaders.
- Don’t forget to have fun.
For the online discounter FatWallet, based in Rockton, Ill., fun is a regular part of
the schedule. Its 55 employees are invited to play in a monthly Game Day, an inhouse competition with activities ranging from Trivial Pursuit to Wii bowling
matches. The company also offers quarterly “fun” rewards when staffers achieve
certain goals, such as hockey games, casino nights, or playdays at at amusement
parks. Team-building events have included a city scavenger hunt in Chicago and a
rooftop Cubs game.
- Train employees to develop positive attitudes.
During the height of the recession in 2009, employee morale became a big issue
for 4Imprint, a maker of customized promotional products, based in Oshkosh,
Wis. The company’s training team decided to try to boost morale by setting up
classes for the 419 employees to watch and discuss videos with inspiring themes
like Lance Armstrong’s comeback from cancer and the friendly culture at
- Offer time away from the office to do some good.
Another way to build employee morale and camaraderie is through community
service. Studer Group, a Gulf Breeze, Fla.-based management consulting firm,
gives its 114 employees four paid hours a month to volunteer for a charitable
initiative or organization of their choice. Departments also take on volunteer
projects as a group.
- Free Yoga classes
- Team-based commissions
10.Work/life balance is encouraged with flexible schedules.
- on-site gym available to all employees
- extensive training programs
- a profit-sharing plan
15.Unlimited vacation days
16.Allowing pets in the office
For example Google does the following things:
- Google provides the surviving spouse or partner of a deceased employee 50% of
their salary for the next 10 years.
- Googlers in San Francisco and Mountain View report being able to bring their pets
- Employees in Mountain View, California, and New York City have an on-site
- They can also enjoy beer and wine in the office on Fridays.
- Googlers get free meals and snacks in the office, which one Glassdoor reviewer
called “varied and delicious.” Reviewers called the food “healthy,” “tasty,” and
even “on par with any of the top restaurants in NYC.”
- Google offers a 50% 401k match up to $8,250.
- New mothers get paid leave up to 22 weeks, while fathers and adoptive parents get
between seven and 12 weeks of paid leave. One senior software engineer wrote the
benefit “…helps create an understanding that any team member might go on leave
now and again, and that this is expected and normal and okay.”
- First year engineers get 15 days of paid time off — that jumps to 20 days after
three years and 25 days after five years. And anyone can take an unpaid three
month leave of absence.
9) Warning & Reprimand:
To warn is to inform a person of unpleasant consequences.
Management notices the misdemeanor and brings it to the notice of the concerned
employee—– Oral or Soft warning —– Warning in writing or memo—- After 2 memos
are issued service of the employee is terminated.
Chapter III : Methods & Modes of Communication
Methods – Verbal & Non verbal
Media – Telephone, Fax, Computer, Internet.
Verbal Non-verbal Electronics
Oral Written Body language Silence Fax
Face-to-face Letters Facial
Telephone Memos Gestures Postures Internet
Notices Posters Colours E-mail
Circulars Dress &
Reports Proxemics Graphs &
Selection of methods should be based on –
- Speed 2. Accuracy 3. Circumstances 4. Confidence and safety 5. Expenses
- Impression 7. Feedback
Oral Communication: Oral communication is communication by means of spoken
Principles of oral communications:
- Know your objective
- Know your audience
- Know your subject
- Know how to use your voice
- Know how to use body language
- Know when to stop
- Its direct & time saving 2. It saves money
- It conveys the exact meaning of
- It provides immediate feedback
- It is more persuasive in nature 6. On-the-spot additions, deletions and
corrections are possible
- Confidential messages can be
- It is informal and friendlier
- Develop relations 10.Motivates the speaker.
- It lacks legal validity 2. Possibility of misunderstanding
- It lacks accountability 4. Problem of retention
- The need for good speaking skills 6. Not always effective
- Lacks planning 8. Diversion of subject matter
- Combination of verbal & non-verbal
- Difficult to practice in large
- Immediate feedback possible 2. Not effective if the receiver does not pay
- Modifications while delivering the
message is possible
- Not effective in large gatherings
- Particularly suitable for discussions
Written communication: Written communication is the expression of language by
means of visible signs.
- Reference 1. Time, trouble & expenses
- Permanent record 2. Feedback is slow
- Legal validity 3. Problem of storage
- Aids memory & retention 4. Lacks friendliness
- Accurate & organized 5. Unsuited to countries where illiteracy
rate is high
- Fixing responsibility 6. Problem of instant clarification
- Wider reach 7. Problem of writers
- Goodwill 8. Problem of communicating secret
- Less chances of misunderstanding
10.Suitable for lengthy messages
Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. Most of us
spend about 75 percent of our waking hours communicating our knowledge, thoughts,
and ideas to others. However, most of us fail to realize that a great deal of our
communication is of a non-verbal form as opposed to the oral and written forms. Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body
posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear
our clothes or the silence we keep.
In person-to-person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously.
If the nonverbal cues and the spoken message are incongruous, the flow of
communication is hindered. Right or wrong, the receiver of the communication tends to
base the intentions of the sender on the non- verbal cues he receives.
Categories and Features
G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:
Physical. This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone
of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions.
Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative
expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing.
Signs. This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal
flags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens.
Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or egobuilding symbols.
Our concern here will be with what Porter has called the physical method of non-verbal
Knowledge of non-verbal communication is important managers who serve as leaders
of organizational “teams,” for at least two reasons:
To function effectively as a team leader the manager must interact with the other
members successfully. Non-verbal cues, when interpreted correctly, provide him
with one means to do so.
The team members project attitudes and feelings through non-verbal
communication. Some personal needs such as approval, growth, achievement, and
recognition may be met in effective teams. The extent to which these needs are
met is closely related to how perceptive the team leader and team members are to
non-verbal communication in themselves and in others on the team.
If the team members show a true awareness to non-verbal cues, the organization
will have a better chance to succeed, for it will be an open, honest, and confronting unit.
Argyle and his associates have been studying the features of nonverbal communication
that provide information to managers and their team members.
Non verbal communication is indirect, without words or without verbal messages. Non
verbal communication constitutes 45% of the impact of message in oral communication.
The major elements of non-verbal communication can be divided into body language
(Kinesics), vocal tone, space & proximics, dress & grooming etc.
- Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. The
superior in the organization generally maintains eye contact longer than the
subordinate. The direct stare of the sender of the message conveys candor and
openness. It elicits a feeling of trust. Downward glances are generally associated
with modesty. Eyes rolled upward are associated with fatigue.
- Facial Expressions. A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey
information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are
monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these
expressions may be similar across cultures.
- Gestures : One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a
hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While
some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others
are individually learned and idiosyncratic.
A gesture is an action of body , hand or head, which conveys a message. Eg: yes,
no, Namaste, wait.
a. Communicating information: eg: ‗V‘ sign, pointing finger etc.
b. Communicating information : eg: clapping indicates appreciation, fistclenching shows aggression, face touching shows anxiety
c. Supports speech
d. Expressing self image
- Posture: The way we stand or sit, the position of the hand & head, basically how
we carry ourselves. Eg. Hunched shoulders show low confidence, in emergency a
person tends to sit on the edge of a chair. Posture can be used to determine a
participant‘s degree of attention or involvement, the difference in status between
communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the other
communicator. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal
relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures, where one person‘s
left side is parallel to the other‘s right side, leads to favorable perception of
communicators and positive speech; a person who displays a forward lean or a
decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during
communication. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean,
body orientation, arm position, and body openness.
- Tactile Communication
Communication through touch is obviously non-verbal. Used properly it can
create a more direct message than dozens of words; used improperly it can build
barriers and cause mistrust. You can easily invade someone’s space through this
type of communication. If it is used reciprocally, it indicates solidarity; if not used
reciprocally, it tends to indicate differences in status. Touch not only facilitates the
sending of the message, but the emotional impact of the message as well.
- Dress & grooming : Uniforms have both a functional and a communicative
purpose. This man’s clothes identify him as male and a police officer; his badges
and shoulder sleeve insignia give information about his job and rank. Elements
such as physique, height, weight, hair, skin color, gender, odors, and clothing send
nonverbal messages during interaction.
- Proxemics: Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical
space around them. The space between the sender and the receiver of a message
influences the way the message is interpreted.
The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures and different
settings within cultures. Space in nonverbal communication may be divided into
four main categories: intimate, social, personal, and public space.
The term territoriality is still used in the study of proxemics to explain human
behavior regarding personal space. Hargie & Dickson (2004, p. 69) identify 4 such
1) Primary territory: this refers to an area that is associated with someone who has
exclusive use of it. For example, a house that others cannot enter without the
2) Secondary territory: unlike the previous type, there is no ―right‖ to occupancy, but
people may still feel some degree of ownership of a particular space. For example,
someone may sit in the same seat on train every day and feel aggrieved if someone
else sits there.
3) Public territory: this refers to an area that is available to all, but only for a set
period, such as a parking space or a seat in a library. Although people have only a
limited claim over that space, they often exceed that claim. For example, it was
found that people take longer to leave a parking space when someone is waiting to
take that space.
4) Interaction territory: this is space created by others when they are interacting. For
example, when a group is talking to each other on a footpath, others will walk
around the group rather than disturb it.
Space can also be divided into :
a. Intimate distance
b. Personal distance
c. Social distance
d. Public distance
- Paralanguage: Includes pitch, volume, intonation etc. The tone of voice, rate of
speech, pause, accent can not only communicate but alter the meaning
significantly. Researchers have found that the tone, pitch, quality of voice, and
rate of speaking convey emotions that can be accurately judged regardless of the
content of the message. The important thing to gain from this is that the voice is
important, not just as the conveyor of the message, but as a complement to the
message. As a communicator you should be sensitive to the influence of tone,
pitch, and quality of your voice on the interpretation of your message by the
Silence can be a positive or negative influence in the communications process. It can
provide a link between messages or sever relationships. It can create tension and
uneasiness or create a peaceful situation. Silence can also be judgmental by indicating
favor or disfavor – agreement or disagreement.
For example, suppose a manager finds a couple of his staff members resting.
If he believes these staff members are basically lazy, the idleness conveys to him that
they are “goofing off” and should be given additional assignments.
If he believes these staff members are self-motivated and good workers, the idleness
conveys to him that they are taking a well-deserved “break.”
If he is personally insecure, the idleness conveys to him that they are threatening his
Time can be an indicator of status. How long will you give the staff member who wishes
to speak to you? How long will you make him wait to see you? Do you maintain a
schedule? Is your schedule such that your subordinates must arrange their schedules to
suit yours? In a healthy organization, the manager and his subordinates use time to
communicate their mutual respect to each other.
11.Visual & Auditory Signs & Signals: The word sign has been derived from the
latin word signum which means mark. Signs eg. Plus, minus, multiplication,
divisions, can be used in chemistry, maths, music, road signs etc. Auditory signs
includes door bell, college bell, ambulance siren etc.
12.Posters: Posters are combination of verbal & non-verbal factors, because they
consists of pictures as well as words. Posters have three parts namely :
e. Headline : This is short but catchy slogan
f. Illustration: This is the visual part consisting of pictures or photographs.
g. Copy : This is the written matter, which gives necessary details.
like old communist poster hero
key word – be inspired
shirt and white tie
looking up into the sky
sharp clean holy preacher
suit – businesslike
angle of face – on a mission –
sun over flag
A new day dawning in America
13.Colours : Color is a form of non verbal communication. It is not a static energy
and its meaning can change from one day to the next with any individual – it all
depends on what energy they are expressing at that point in time. Every colour
Red is the color of fire and blood, so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength,
power, determination as well as passion, desire, and love.
Red is a very emotionally intense color. It enhances human metabolism, increases
respiration rate, and raises blood pressure. It has very high visibility, which is why stop
signs, stoplights, and fire equipment are usually painted red. In heraldry, red is used to
indicate courage. It is a color found in many national flags.
Red brings text and images to the foreground. Use it as an accent color to stimulate
people to make quick decisions; it is a perfect color for ‘Buy Now’ or ‘Click Here’ buttons
on Internet banners and websites. In advertising, red is often used to evoke erotic feelings
(red lips, red nails, red-light districts, ‘Lady in Red’, etc). Red is widely used to indicate
danger (high voltage signs, traffic lights). This color is also commonly associated with
energy, so you can use it when promoting energy drinks, games, cars, items related to
sports and high physical activity.
Light red represents joy, sexuality, passion, sensitivity, and love.
Pink signifies romance, love, and friendship. It denotes feminine qualities and
Dark red is associated with vigor, willpower, rage, anger, leadership, courage, longing,
malice, and wrath.
Brown suggests stability and denotes masculine qualities.
Reddish-brown is associated with harvest and fall.
Orange combines the energy of red and the happiness of yellow. It is associated with joy,
sunshine, and the tropics. Orange represents enthusiasm, fascination, happiness,
creativity, determination, attraction, success, encouragement, and stimulation.
To the human eye, orange is a very hot color, so it gives the sensation of heat.
Nevertheless, orange is not as aggressive as red. Orange increases oxygen supply to the
brain, produces an invigorating effect, and stimulates mental activity. It is highly
accepted among young people. As a citrus color, orange is associated with healthy food
and stimulates appetite. Orange is the color of fall and harvest. In heraldry, orange is
symbolic of strength and endurance.
Orange has very high visibility, so you can use it to catch attention and highlight the most
important elements of your design. Orange is very effective for promoting food products
Dark orange can mean deceit and distrust.
Red-orange corresponds to desire, sexual passion, pleasure, domination, aggression, and
thirst for action.
Gold evokes the feeling of prestige. The meaning of gold is illumination, wisdom, and
wealth. Gold often symbolizes high quality.
Yellow is the color of sunshine. It’s associated with joy, happiness, intellect, and energy.
Yellow produces a warming effect, arouses cheerfulness, stimulates mental activity, and
generates muscle energy. Yellow is often associated with food. Bright, pure yellow is an
attention getter, which is the reason taxicabs are painted this color. When overused,
yellow may have a disturbing effect; it is known that babies cry more in yellow rooms.
Yellow is seen before other colors when placed against black; this combination is often
used to issue a warning. In heraldry, yellow indicates honor and loyalty. Later the
meaning of yellow was connected with cowardice.
Use yellow to evoke pleasant, cheerful feelings. You can choose yellow to promote
children’s products and items related to leisure. Yellow is very effective for attracting
attention, so use it to highlight the most important elements of your design. Men usually
perceive yellow as a very lighthearted, ‘childish’ color, so it is not recommended to use
yellow when selling prestigious, expensive products to men – nobody will buy a yellow
business suit or a yellow Mercedes. Yellow is an unstable and spontaneous color, so
avoid using yellow if you want to suggest stability and safety. Light yellow tends to
disappear into white, so it usually needs a dark color to highlight it. Shades of yellow are
visually unappealing because they loose cheerfulness and become dingy.
Dull (dingy) yellow represents caution, decay, sickness, and jealousy.
Light yellow is associated with intellect, freshness, and joy.
Green is the color of nature. It symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility.
Green has strong emotional correspondence with safety. Dark green is also commonly
associated with money.
Green has great healing power. It is the most restful color for the human eye; it can
improve vision. Green suggests stability and endurance. Sometimes green denotes lack of
experience; for example, a ‘greenhorn’ is a novice. In heraldry, green indicates growth
and hope. Green, as opposed to red, means safety; it is the color of free passage in road
Use green to indicate safety when advertising drugs and medical products. Green is
directly related to nature, so you can use it to promote ‘green’ products. Dull, darker green
is commonly associated with money, the financial world, banking, and Wall Street.
Dark green is associated with ambition, greed, and jealousy.
Yellow-green can indicate sickness, cowardice, discord, and jealousy.
Aqua is associated with emotional healing and protection.
Olive green is the traditional color of peace.
Blue is the color of the sky and sea. It is often associated with depth and stability. It
symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth, and heaven.
Blue is considered beneficial to the mind and body. It slows human metabolism and
produces a calming effect. Blue is strongly associated with tranquility and calmness. In
heraldry, blue is used to symbolize piety and sincerity.
You can use blue to promote products and services related to cleanliness (water
purification filters, cleaning liquids, vodka), air and sky (airlines, airports, air
conditioners), water and sea (sea voyages, mineral water). As opposed to emotionally
warm colors like red, orange, and yellow; blue is linked to consciousness and intellect.
Use blue to suggest precision when promoting high-tech products.
Blue is a masculine color; according to studies, it is highly accepted among males. Dark
blue is associated with depth, expertise, and stability; it is a preferred color for corporate
Avoid using blue when promoting food and cooking, because blue suppresses appetite.
When used together with warm colors like yellow or red, blue can create high-impact,
vibrant designs; for example, blue-yellow-red is a perfect color scheme for a superhero.
Light blue is associated with health, healing, tranquility, understanding, and softness.
Dark blue represents knowledge, power, integrity, and seriousness.
Purple combines the stability of blue and the energy of red. Purple is associated with
royalty. It symbolizes power, nobility, luxury, and ambition. It conveys wealth and
extravagance. Purple is associated with wisdom, dignity, independence, creativity,
mystery, and magic.
According to surveys, almost 75 percent of pre-adolescent children prefer purple to all
other colors. Purple is a very rare color in nature; some people consider it to be artificial.
Light purple is a good choice for a feminine design. You can use bright purple when
promoting children’s products.
Light purple evokes romantic and nostalgic feelings.
Dark purple evokes gloom and sad feelings. It can cause frustration.
White is associated with light, goodness, innocence, purity, and virginity. It is considered
to be the color of perfection.
White means safety, purity, and cleanliness. As opposed to black, white usually has a
positive connotation. White can represent a successful beginning. In heraldry, white
depicts faith and purity.
In advertising, white is associated with coolness and cleanliness because it’s the color of
snow. You can use white to suggest simplicity in high-tech products. White is an
appropriate color for charitable organizations; angels are usually imagined wearing white
clothes. White is associated with hospitals, doctors, and sterility, so you can use white to
suggest safety when promoting medical products. White is often associated with low
weight, low-fat food, and dairy products.
Black is associated with power, elegance, formality, death, evil, and mystery.
Black is a mysterious color associated with fear and the unknown (black holes). It usually
has a negative connotation (blacklist, black humor, ‘black death’). Black denotes strength
and authority; it is considered to be a very formal, elegant, and prestigious color (black
tie, black Mercedes). In heraldry, black is the symbol of grief.
Black gives the feeling of perspective and depth, but a black background diminishes
readability. A black suit or dress can make you look thinner. When designing for a
gallery of art or photography, you can use a black or gray background to make the other
colors stand out. Black contrasts well with bright colors. Combined with red or orange –
other very powerful colors – black gives a very aggressive color scheme.
eg. Traffic signals, Interpretation of different colours like red represents danger or
is considered as auspicious in wedding, white purity or peace etc.
Colours and Branding:
A brand‘s logo and visual identity will comprise a number of visual cues, such
as shapes, symbols, number, and words. But the number one visual component
that people remember most is colour. In fact, colour increases brand recognition
by up to 80%.
When it comes to branding, the power of color is both emotional and practical.
On an emotional level, color can affect how consumers feel when they look at a
brand, while on a practical level it can help a brand stand out in the crowd.
A number of studies on the relationship between color and branding
(here, here and here) reveal that up to 90% of snap judgments made about
products can be based on color alone, that colors influence how consumers view
the ‗personality‘ of the brand in question, and that the relationship between
brands and color hinges on the perceived appropriateness of the color being the
right ‗fit‘ for the particular brand.
Whether you’re a designer or a business owner, it’s helpful to know color
meanings and symbolism so you can make informed decisions. If you choose a
color meaning ‘tranquility’ for your extreme sports brand, you might be sending
the wrong message.
This is all well and good, but how do you go about choosing a color that
suits your brand? In this article, we will examine the use of color in branding
and give you an 11-color guide to help you choose the perfect one for your
- Red – For Danger, Passion, Excitement & Energy
Meanings: Red has a number of different contextual associations and in
branding can deliver a highly visible punch. It has the ability to rev desire; and
not surprisingly when it is the color of fire, danger, and blood on one hand; and
love, sexuality and passion on the other. It is a bold, energetic and lively color
that can symbolize strength, confidence and power.
- Orange – Fresh, Youthful, Creative & Adventurous
Meanings: Blending the warmth of red and the optimism of yellow, orange
communicates activity and energy. And of course it‘s hard not to go past orange
as the color of, well, oranges, and all their vitamin c byproducts, which
immediately makes orange feel fresh and healthy. Orange is not for everyone (it
was certainly the color of the decade in the 1970s) and can therefore tap into
associations of youthfulness, creativity and adventure.
- Yellow – Optimistic, Cheerful, Playful & Happy
Meanings: Being the color of sunshine, yellow puts a smile on the dial. It is the
most visible color from a distance (which is why it‘s used for street signs) and
communicates cheerfulness, friendliness, joy and energy (who doesn‘t need
more yellow in their life?) It can also be associated with mental clarity and
intellect (again, who doesn‘t need more yellow?) However, yellow is also a
cautionary color used in life vests, police cordoning tape and hazardous areas.
- Green – Natural, Vitality, Prestige & Wealth
Meanings: Green has two very common meanings that are quite paradoxical;
one being nature and the environment, and the other being finance and wealth.
When it comes to nature, green represents plant life and growth and is
consequently used to convey being ‗green‘ in the environmental, sustainable,
organic, natural sense of the word. And of course green is, as the saying goes,
‗the color of money‘ (US money, that is) and therefore associated with wealth
- Blue – Communicative, Trustworthy, Calming & Depressed
Meanings: Blue is the most universally preferred color, perhaps for its very
versatile qualities. It is a favorite color for companies that wish to convey
reliability, trustworthiness and communication (I‘m looking at you Facebook,
Twitter and Samsung) and for expressing the authority and officialdom of
organizations (oh, hey there Constable). It is also appreciated for it‘s calming
and harmonious qualities being associated with the sea and sky. However, being
associated with the emotional feeling of being ‗blue‘ it is also used to express
sadness or depression.
- Purple – Royalty, Majesty, Spiritual & Mysterious
Meanings: Purple is a low arousal color. It is traditionally associated with
royalty, majesty or nobility as well as having a spiritual or mysterious quality.
Darker shades often represent luxury or opulence while lighter lavender shades
are quite feminine, sentimental and even nostalgic.
- Brown – Organic, Wholesome, Simple & Honest
Meanings: Brown gets a lot of use in this era of organic and natural food,
beauty and products. Nature inspired it represents a feeling of wholesomeness,
orderliness, and being grounded. It is simple, strong, durable and honest and
may express that your brand has better things to care about than superfluous
color, when really… (mind trick!).
- Pink – Feminine, Sentimental, Romantic & Exciting
Meanings: Pink has long been (stereotypically) associated with females and is
often viewed as being ‗girly.‘ However, like all colors, pink is quite diverse and
the level of intensity can impact its meaning. Pale pink, often marketed as the
official color of little girls, represents sweetness while dusty pink can be more
sentimental and light pink more romantic. At the other end of the scale, hot pink
indicates youthfulness, energy, fun and excitement. A soft pink is now often
referred to as ‘millennial pink’, for the generation’s fondness for the blush tone.
Soft pink interiors, graphics and more are particularly popular with Generation
- Black – Sophisticated, Formal, Luxurious & Sorrowful
Meanings: While color is more likely to increase brand recognition there‘s no
reason black—when used appropriately—can‘t be just as distinctive, memorable
and communicative of a brand‘s attributes. Black is to be taken seriously. It
represents power, luxury, sophistication and exclusivity on one hand; and death,
evil and mystery on the other. From formality to mourning to power, black is
bold, classic and not to be fooled with.
- White – Purity, Simplicity, Innocence & Minimalism
Meanings: White represents simplicity, purity, innocence and perfection. And if
you had to identify one brand that has used white to convey its brand message to
perfection it would have to be Apple – white represents the simplicity of the
products in both their form and function. White also comes with a starkness or
sterility about it, which is often used be designers to convey a minimalist
aesthetic and clean, modern quality.
- Multicolor – Variety
Meanings: Of course, what about mixing multiple colors in one logo, such as
Google, the Olympics and NBC? Diverse color generally indicates variety – be
it representative of people, countries, or offerings.
Color is an important consideration in your brand identity system. Colors
have a significant impact on people’s emotional state. They also have been
shown to impact people‘s ability to concentrate and learn. They have a wide
variety of specific mental associations. In fact, the effects are physiological,
psychological, and sociological.
Non-primary colors are more calming than primary colors.
Blue is the most calming of the primary colors, followed closely by a
Test takers score higher and weight lifters lift more in blue rooms.
Blue text increases reading retention.
Yellow evokes cheerfulness. Houses with yellow trim or flower gardens
Reds and oranges encourage diners to eat quickly and leave. Red also
makes food more appealing and influences people to eat more. (It is no
coincidence that fast food restaurants almost always use these colors.)
Pink enhances appetites and has been shown to calm prison inmates.
Blue and black suppress appetites.
Children prefer primary colors. (Notice that children‘s toys and books
often use these colors.)
Forest green and burgundy appeals to the wealthiest 3 percent of
Americans and often raises the perceived price of an item.
Orange is often used to make an expensive item seem less expensive.
Red clothing can convey power.
Red trim is used in bars and casinos because it can cause people to lose
track of time.
White is typically associated with cool, clean and fresh.
Red is often associated with Christmas and orange with Halloween and
Black clothes make people look thinner.
Black is also associated with elegance and sophistication. It also seems
Colors also have a functional impact on readability, eye-strain, ability to
attract attention, ability to be seen at night, etc. This is important in choosing
colors for signing, website pages, prints ads, and other marketing media.
The most visible color is yellow.
The most legible of all color combinations are black on yellow and green
on white followed by red on white.
It is no surprise that most traffic signs use these color combinations.
Black on white is the easiest to read, on paper, and on computer screens.
Hard colors (red, orange and yellow) are more visible and tend to make
objects look larger and closer. They are easier to focus upon. They create
excitement and cause people to over-estimate time.
Soft colors (violet, blue and green) are less visible and tend to make
objects look smaller and further away. They aren‘t as easy to focus upon.
They have a calming effect, increase concentration, and cause people to
Usually, it is advantageous for a brand to consistently ―own‖ certain colors,
which provide an additional recognition cue.
14.Maps, Graphs & Charts:
h. Maps: A map is a drawing on paper that shows location, size & other
features of countries.
i. Line / Pie / Bar graph: present numerical or statistical data.
j. Charts : are used for mounting maps & graphs for better visual effects.
Modes of communication
- Telephone – Telephone is a device that transmits speech at a distance through the
medium of electronic waves. In 1876 telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
Types of telephones:-
- Landline or standard telephones
- Cellular or Mobile phones: These are wireless devices that use radio waves to transmit
sounds. The two main cellular systems in operation are GSM – Global System for Mobile
Communications, and CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access.
- Satellite phones: These are used in areas where communication links are absent or
- Ethernet phones: There are digital phones which connect directly to a computer
Telephone services: 1) Networking: – This works as a base for computer network and
2) Teleconferencing and videoconferencing : – Sounds and video are transmitted via
phone lines or satellites, so that people in different places and different countries can be
communicate with one another at the same time.
- Speak politely, precisely, clearly, confidently. Be positive & talk friendly with a
smile in voice.
- Avoid shouting or speaking too low.
- Listen carefully and if a part of message is not clear, politely ask for repetition.
- While answering telephone calls, introduce yourself, your company & greet the
- Before making a call, one must be mentally prepared, if need be note down points.
- Make sure you have delivered the message completely and is understood by the
- Time saving device. 1. Body language cannot be communicated.
- Immediate feedback 2. It is sometimes not time saving
- Legal validity 3. Call may be made at a wrong time.
- Intercom facility
- It provides a large range of services like
STD (Subscriber Trunk dialing), ISD
(International Subscriber dialing), call
waiting, call forwarding etc.
- Fax: Fax is connected to telephone , can be used to send documents, photos, charts,
graphs, drawings, diagrams, certificates etc. It scans a printed page, converts it into
signals & transmit this signal over a telephone line to the receiving fax machine.
Drawbacks – cost, time, quality.
- Computer –
- Parts of computers – input, output, storage, processing devices.
- What is software & hardware?
- Uses of computer.
- LAN, WAN, Internet.
- Uses of Internet – Search, distant learning, E-commerce, videoconferencing, E-mail ,
social networking sites, cloud computing etc.
Barriers to communication
The word barrier means an obstacle, a hindrance or simply a problem that comes in a way of
transmission of a message and blocks the process, either completely or partially.
Different types of barriers are as follows:
- Physical or environmental barriers:
a. Noise – The noise created by external factors like traffic, playing of loud music,
trains and airplanes, or by crowds of people, affects our communication.
b. Time & distance – Time becomes a physical barrier when people have to
communicate across different time zones in different countries. The physical
distance between people who need to communicate can also cause problems
because it does not allow oral or face-to-face communication.
c. Defects in communication system – Mechanical problems and defects in
instruments of communication also create physical barriers, as in a faulty fax
machine or typewriter. Similarly, a computer that hangs, or a dead telephone line
can lead to non-transmission of messages. eg. No range in mobile, technical
problem in mike or speakers.
d. Wrong selection of medium – The sender selects the medium which is not
familiar to the receiver.
e. Physiological defects like stammering, hearing defects, mumbling while speaking
- Language or Semantic barriers:
Language is the main medium of communication and words are its tools. Language
proves to be a barrier at diferent levels, such as semantic (meaning), syntactic (grammar),
phonological (pronunciation, intonation, pitch etc.) and finally linguistic (across
languages) Thus, language barriers can arise in different ways:
a. Jargon or unfamiliar terminology – There are some special terms or technical
words used by people belonging to a certain group or field of work such as
doctors, lawyers, computer software engineers or college students. They use
words which are their own, specialised jargon which cannot be understood by
anyone outside their group.
b. Difference in language – Unfamiliar language becomes a barrier when people do
not know each other‗s language. This barrier can be overcome by using a
common medium of communication, as in a classroom. Translation is also an
important way of overcoming this barrier.
c. Words are of two kinds: extensional and intentional words. Extensional words are
clear in their meaning and therefore do not create barriers – such as words like
chair, garden etc. Intentional words are words that describe and they can be
understood differently by different people, according to the meaning that a person
gives to the word. Thus good, bad, beautiful are intentional words, and a simple
sentence like she is a good girl. can create confusion because the meaning of
the word ‗good‘ is unclear.
d. Sometimes, the same word is used in different contexts, giving rise totally
different meanings. A word like =hard‗, for example can be used in different
ways: hard chair,
hard-hearted, hard drink, having a hard time – all these use the same word but the
meanings are different.
e. Barriers can be created when we come across words, which have the same sound
when pronounced, but which mean very different things. Examples: words like
fair and fare; bear and bare; council and counsel.
- Psychological barriers:
Psyche means mind. Psychological barriers are created in the mind. Communication is a
mental activity and its aim is to create understanding. But the human mind is complex
and not all communication can result in understanding. There are several kinds of
psychological barriers which can come in the way of understanding.
(a) Emotions: Emotions are among the most common psychological barriers to
communication. The emotion may be connected to the communication received or it
may be present in the sender‗s or receiver‗s mind, even before the communication takes
place. In both cases, it acts as a barrier. Emotions can be positive, like happiness and joy,
or negative, like fear, anger, mistrust etc. Both positive and negative emotions act as
if they are not kept in check.
(b) Prejudice: A prejudice is an opinion held by a person for which there is no rational
basis or valid reason. It can be against something or someone, or in favour of it, but it
becomes a barrier to a meaningful communication. Prejudices are based on ignorance and
information, e.g., prejudices about certain communities or groups of people.
(c) Halo effect: Sometimes our reactions to people are not balanced or objective; they are
of an extreme nature. Either we like a person so much that we can find no shortcomings
in her/him, or we dislike someone so much that we can see nothing good in her/him. In
both cases, we commit errors of judgment and fail to understand the person.
(d) Self-image or different perceptions: Every person has in her/his mind a certain image
of herself/himself. S/he thinks of herself/himself in a certain way. This is their perception
of themselves, their self-image. One‗s self-image is the product of one‗s heredity, one‗s
environment and one‗s experiences, and thus every person‗s self-image is unique and
different from the others. Self-image can create a barrier because we accept
which is compatible with our self-image. We avoid or reject communication, which goes
against our perception of ourselves.
(e) Closed Mind: A closed mind is one which refuses to accept an idea or opinion on a
subject, because it is different from his idea. Such persons form their opinion on a
subject, and then refuse to listen to anyone who has something different to say about it. A
closed mind may be the result of some past experience or just habit. It is very difficult to
remove this psychological barrier.
(f) Status: Status refers to rank or position. It could be economic, social or professional
status. In any organisation, hierarchy creates differences in rank, and this is a normal
situation. Thus, status by itself does not cause barriers; but when a person becomes too
conscious of his status, whether high or low, then status becomes a barrier. For instance,
in a business organisation, a senior executive who is unduly conscious of his seniority
will not communicate properly with his juniors, and will refrain from giving them the
information. Similarly, if a junior is acutely conscious of his junior status, he will avoid
communicating with his seniors, even when it is necessary
(g) Inattentiveness and Impatience: Sometimes the receiver may not pay attention to the
sender‗s message, or he may be too impatient to hear the message fully and properly.
Such barriers are common in oral communication.
Overcoming psychological barriers:
- Adopt flexible and open-minded attitude
- Training of listening skills
- Exposure to different environment, views will help to broaden outlook
- Listening with empathy helps in making oneself more adapting to other‘s perceptions.
- Cross-cultural barriers: Mary Allen Guffey defines communication as ,‖the complex
system of values, traits, morals and customs shared by a society.‖
Cultural diversity within a country, and cultural differences between people from
different countries, are a major cause of barriers. This is because people are conditioned
by their cultures, and they develop certain habits of working, communicating, eating,
dressing etc. according to their cultural conditioning. They find it difficult to get through
to people who come from an alien culture, and who have different habits. A simple thing
like a greeting to
welcome a person is vastly different in India from a greeting in, for example, an Arab
country, or in Japan. Food and dress habits of a different culture can make a person
uncomfortable. Concepts of space and time are also different across cultures; for
Indians do not mind sitting close to each other and sharing space in offices or in public
places. However, a European would not be able to tolerate such intrusive behaviour.
Similarly, people who come from a culture where time is very valuable will be impatient
with those who come from a culture with an easygoing attitude towards time, where
everything is done in a slow, unhurried way.
a. Cultural diversity
f. Decision making
Overcoming Barriers :
Barriers disrupt communication and interfere with understanding. They must be
overcome if communication has to be effective.
Physical barriers are comparatively easier to overcome. The use of loudspeakers and
microphones can remove the barriers of noise and distance in crowded places like railway
stations. Traffic signals and non-verbal gestures of the traffic policeman remove physical
barriers on the roads. Technological advancement has
helped in reducing the communication gap arising due to time and
distance .It is possible to make an alternative arrangement, should
the technological instruments fail. A back-up plan helps in tidying
over any snag.
Language or Semantic Barriers can be overcome if the sender and the receiver choose
a language which both of them understand very well. Help from a translator or an
interpreter also helps in overcoming the language barrier. Exposure to the target
language and training oneself in the acquisition of skills of the given language too help in
overcoming the language barrier. Language barriers can be avoided by careful study and
accurate use of language. Clarity should be the main objective when using
language. Jargon should be avoided.
Psychological barriers, as also cross-cultural barriers are difficult to overcome, as
they are difficult to identify and even more difficult to address. Even these can be
avoided or reduced by adopting a flexible and open-minded attitude. The ultimate aim is
to build bridges of understanding between people – that is the main aim of
communication. Training oneself to listen to different views , exposing oneself to
different environments help in broadening one‗s outlook and cultivating tolerance to
multiple views. Teaching oneself to listen with empathy helps in making oneself more
open to others ‗perceptions.
While dealing with psychological or cross-cultural barriers the
sender should make it a point to–
(i) Use language that is politically neutral and correct.
(ii) Present views in simple and objective manner
(iii) Focus on the objective of communication
Importance of listening
- Listening is the first means of acquiring information
- Listening is the first means of learning new language
- Helps to solve problems
- Helps in framing plans and policies
- Helps to share information
- Helps in decision-making
- Helps to know organization
- Develops better relations
- Provides encouragement
Nature of listening process:
Listening is such a routine activity that most people do not even realize that they are poor
listeners, and are, therefore, in need of developing their listening skills. Others may feel
that listening is a very difficult task, perhaps, next to impossible to achieve. But the truth
is that good listening habits can be cultivated, and with practice, much can be achieved.
Understanding the complex process of listening, itself, may help people become good
listeners. Listening involves the following inter-related steps in sequential order:
. Receiving: This is a kind of physiological process. The sounds impinge on the listener‗s
ear. It is only when he takes these in that he can go further in the process of getting at the
. Attending: The listener has to focus his attention on the .message. to the exclusion of
all other sounds that may be present in the immediate surroundings.
. Interpreting: The sounds have to be interpreted, that is, the listener tries to understand
the message that is being put across against the background of his own values, beliefs,
ideas, expectations, needs, experience and background — and, of course, taking into
account the speaker‗s viewpoint.
. Remembering: This involves storing the message for future reference.
. Evaluating: The listener makes a critical analysis of the information received, judging
whether the message makes sense while separating fact from opinion.
. Responding: The listener gives a verbal or nonverbal response, and takes action
Barriers to listening:
a. Semantic – The listener is confused about the actual meaning of a word, as
the word has different meanings.
b. Physical – This occurs when, for eg., the air-conditioning system or
microphones fail; or there is noise in the surroundings; or, someone is
constantly tapping on the table with his fingers.
c. Mental – This occurs when the listener makes himself the central character
of his daydreams and forgets the speaker.
- Faking attention or pretending to listen –
This usually happens when the message consists of material of a difficult or
uninteresting nature. The listener may not want to bother to understand the
message. Sometimes this may happen when he is critical of the speaker‗s looks,
style of speaking, or mannerisms.
- Defensive listening –
This kind of listening takes place when the speaker‗s views challenge the listener‗s
- Prejudice – The listener‗s bias, negative attitude, preconceived notions, fears, or
stress adversely affect listening.
- Constant focus on self – A person‗s ego may also adversely affect his listening.
The Roman playwright, Terence, reveals this aspect of human nature when he
says: .My closest relation is myself. A person may believe that he knows
everything that the speaker is talking about and, therefore, does not need to listen.
- Information overload – The listener may be exposed to too many words or points
and, therefore, be unable to take in everything. He should learn how to pick up the
ones, and discard the rest.
- The thinking-speaking rate – The speaking rate is 125 – 150 words per minute,
whereas the thinking rate is 400 words per minute. So the listener‗s mind is
moving much faster than the speaker is able to speak. The extra, intervening time,
before the speaker arrives at his next point, is usually spent in shifting one‗s
mental focus, or in day dreaming.
- Short attention span – The natural attention span for human beings is short. This is
not easy to rectify, except for making a special effort to concentrate and prolong
one‗s attention span.
- Preparation for listening –
The environment must be made conducive to listening. Noise and disturbance can
out by closing doors, or using a soundproof room. Suitable arrangements for
microphones and stationery should be made in advance. Interruptions must be
prevented. By these means, the physical barriers can be eliminated, and the
listener can focus his attention on the speaker.
- Background knowledge –
The listener should train himself to listen intelligently, bearing in mind the
speaker, the topic and the situation.
- Re-organize the material in mind –
The listener should be able to recognize patterns used by the speaker, and should
be able to identify the main / central point, and supporting points; s/he should reorganize the material in his mind according to certain headings so as to facilitate
- Focusing on the speaker‘s matter than manner –
The listener should not be prejudiced by the personal or behavioural traits of the
speaker or his style, but should focus on the content, intent, and argument of the
- Listening actively –
Listening actively also involves being considerate to the speaker and empathising
with him. By adopting an alert listening pose, the listener puts the speaker at his
ease and places him in a better position to formulate and express his ideas. The
listener should have a positive attitude towards a talk, believing that in every talk
there is always at least one point or idea that will be of value and special
significance to him.
- Listen with complete concentration –
The listener should learn to differentiate between argument and evidence; idea and
example; fact and opinion. He should attempt to pick out and paraphrase the
important points while disregarding unimportant ones.
- Interaction –
a. Do not interrupt – Allow the speaker to finish what he is saying before you
begin to talk.
b. Do not disturb the speaker by indulging in some undesirable form of
activity, like talking to the person next to you, looking at your watch, or
walking out, or appearing uninterested or distracted.
c. Do not contradict the speaker
d. Do not let your mind move on to anticipate what is going to be said next –
just listen carefully to what the speaker is actually saying. If you are busy
planning your replies, you are likely to miss important points, and make
irrelevant or stupid statements.
e. Adopt an open-minded attitude –
Be open to new ideas, ask questions, seeking clarification of meaning,
ideas, and thoughts; or to gather additional information, or to direct the
flow of the conversation.
f. Avoid passing comments or making remarks when the speaker is speaking
g. Do not let your mind indulge in some other activity
h. Only one person should speak at one time.
- Patience –
Do not get restless or impatient. Be careful not to lose your temper.
- Motivation –
The experience of listening is more rewarding if the listener is motivated and
interested. Confidence and trust in the speaker are necessary.
10.Provide positive feedback –
By maintaining eye contact, using proper facial expressions, nodding from time to
time, leaning forward, and so on, you put the speaker at his ease, encourage him
and thus enable him to give of his best.
11.Listen for vocal & no-verbal cues –
By noting the speaker‗s tone of voice or facial expressions, it is possible to get at
his meaning more effectively. Pay attention to what the speaker says as much as to
what he leaves unsaid.
12.Make good use of the time gap between speaking and thinking –
Spend this =extra‗ time reflecting on what the speaker is saying. You could even
jot down points or make brief notes on selected topics. Make a kind of mental
summary, and evaluate what is being said. You may anticipate what the speaker is
going to say next, but it is necessary to listen carefully to find out whether it is
exactly what you expected or whether there is some difference. If there is a
difference, it is important to consider what the difference is, and the reason for it.
The listener must honestly examine his existing listening habits, and consider
whether he can improve upon them.
14.Practicing listening skills –
Train yourself to use your listening skills every time you have occasion to listen.
Do not abandon the task of listening, especially if you find it difficult. Listening is
an act of the will as much as a matter of habit. It depends on mental conditioning.
Willingness to make an effort, therefore, matters.
15.Adopting to different communication events –
Effective listening includes the ability to adapt to several communication events,
involving intercultural communication situations. The listener must be aware of
factors like culture, gender, race, status, etc., and not allow them to adversely
affect his listening. In this connection, tolerance, patience, and empathy are
Styles of listening:
- Empathic listening –
In this case we empathize with the speaker, and understand things from her/his
point of view, allowing her/him the freedom to express her/his emotions.
- Informational listening –
Here, the aim is to receive information. So the listener pays attention to the
content, and makes decisions regarding the taking of notes; s/he also watches
for related non-verbal cues, asks questions, and focuses on the replies. All this
helps her/ him to assimilate the information.
- Evaluative listening –
We are exposed to a great deal of material intended to persuade us to accept
the speaker‗s point of view; we need to evaluate what we hear, and note only
certain points that are of interest or use to us.
- Appreciative listening –
We use this form of listening when we listen to our favourite music or watch
an enjoyable television programme. In these instances, careful listening greatly
enhances pleasure and appreciation.
- Critical listening –
This is when we listen critically and analytically, carefully considering the
topic of the argument, the intentions of the speaker, his omissions, his point of
view; his credibility and so on.
What is a ‘Business’?
A business is an organization or enterprising entity engaged in commercial, industrial or
professional activities. A company transacts business activities through the production of
a good, offering of a service or retailing of already manufactured products. A business
can be a for-profit entity or a nonprofit organization that operates to fulfill a charitable
The term business has different meaning depending on the context.::
- The commercial activities of an individual or a group engaging in some type of
financial transaction. Eg.: bargain between two individuals. You are buying
something in exchange of money.
- An organization that is formed to operate some type of service or commercial
a. For Profit organization. Eg: The organisation‘s sole purpose can be to earn
profit and can range from a sole proprietorship to a multinationals
publically traded cooperation.
b. Not-For-Profit business. Eg. Farming.
- The type of commerce in which someone engages. For eg:
a. Nike is in sports apparel and equipment business.
b. General Motors is in automobile business.
What is Business Ethics?
Business ethics is the study of proper business policies and practices regarding potentially
controversial issues, such as corporate governance, insider trading, bribery,
discrimination, corporate social responsibility and fiduciary responsibilities. Law often
guides business ethics, while other times business ethics provide a basic framework
that businesses may choose to follow to gain public acceptance.
The system of laws and guidelines by which business professionals and corporations
operate in a fair, legal, and moral fashion.
Business Ethics is a broad topic covering following:
- Executive Pay
- Earnings Management
- Political Contributions
- Marketing practices
- Tax avoidance
- Corporate governance
- Fiduciary responsibilities
10.Corporate Social responsibility
16.Health and Safety
19.Human resource Management
The organization where ethics are followed, trust develops between employees and
management as well as between the public and cooperation.
Thus, Business ethics lead to a more productive workplace.
Importance of Business Ethics
Ethics concern an individual’s moral judgements about right and wrong. Decisions taken within
an organisation may be made by individuals or groups, but whoever makes them will be
influenced by the culture of the company. The decision to behave ethically is a moral one;
employees must decide what they think is the right course of action. This may involve rejecting
the route that would lead to the biggest short-term profit.
Businesses around the world are designing and implementing business ethics programs to
address the legal, ethical, social responsibility, and environmental issues they face. By
addressing these issues in a systematic way, enterprises can improve their own business
performance, expand opportunities for growth, and contribute to the development of social
capital in their markets. They can realize specific business benefits, such as:
- Enhanced reputations and good will
- Reduced risks and costs
- Protection from their own employees and agents
- Stronger competitive positions
- Expanded access to capital, credit, and foreign investment
- Increased profits
- Sustained long-term growth
- International respect for enterprises and emerging markets Enterprises that
excel in these areas create a climate of excellence for their employees,
shareholders, and communities, and contribute to the economic wellbeing of
Ethical behaviour and corporate social responsibility can bring significant benefits
to a business. For example, they may:
attract customers to the firm’s products, thereby boosting sales and profits
make employees want to stay with the business, reduce labour turnover and
therefore increase productivity
attract more employees wanting to work for the business, reduce recruitment costs
and enable the company to get the most talented employees
attract investors and keep the company’s share price high, thereby protecting the
business from takeover.
Unethical behaviour or a lack of corporate social responsibility may damage a firm’s
reputation and make it less appealing to stakeholders. Profits could fall as a result.
Several factors play a role in the success of a company that are beyond the scope
of financial statements alone. Organizational culture, management philosophy and ethics
in business each have an impact on how well a business performs in the long term. No
matter the size, industry or level of profitability of an organization, business ethics are
one of the most important aspects of long-term success.
Ethics in Leadership
The management team sets the tone for how the entire company runs on a day-to-day
basis. When the prevailing management philosophy is based on ethical practices and
behavior, leaders within an organization can direct employees by example and guide
them in making decisions that are not only beneficial to them as individuals, but also to
the organization as a whole. Building on a foundation of ethical behavior helps create
long lasting positive effects for a company, including the ability to attract and retain
highly talented individuals and building and maintaining a positive reputation within the
community. Running a business in a ethical manner from the top down builds a stronger
bond between individuals on the management team, further creating stability within the
When management is leading an organization in an ethical manner, employees follow in
those footsteps. Employees make better decisions in less time with business ethics as a
guiding principle; this increases productivity and overall employee morale. When
employees complete work in a way that is based on honesty and integrity, the whole
organization benefits. Employees who work for a corporation that demands a high
standard of business ethics in all facets of operations are more likely to perform their job
duties at a higher level and are also more inclined to stay loyal to that organization.
Business Ethics Benefits
The importance of business ethics reaches far beyond employee loyalty and morale or the
strength of a management team bond. As with all business initiatives, the ethical
operation of a company is directly related to profitability in both the short and long term.
The reputation of a business from the surrounding community, other businesses and
individual investors is paramount in determining whether a company is a worthwhile
investment. If a company’s reputation is less than perfect based on the perception that it
does not operate ethically, investors are less inclined to buy stock or otherwise support its
With consistent ethical behavior comes increasingly positive public image, and there are
few other considerations as important to potential investors and current shareholders. To
retain a positive image, businesses must be committed to operating on an ethical
foundation as it relates to treatment of employees, respect to the surrounding
environment and fair market practices in terms of price and consumer treatment.
Personal integrity at the workplace
Integrity comes in many forms, but honesty and dependability are two traits that are
expected in most workplace situations. Without responsible behavior, distrust can make a
work environment tense and uncomfortable. A strong work ethic shows co-workers and
clients that you’re reliable and take your responsibilities seriously. Polite communication,
respectable behavior and fiscal responsibility also help you stand out as a trustworthy
- Work When You’re on the Clock
Working diligently when you’re on the clock is a clear example of workplace integrity.
Socializing, surfing the Internet, making personal phone calls, texting and frequent
snacking are activities that detract from work time. Saving those activities for break time
will show your boss, co-workers and customers that you work hard when you’re on the
clock. The career website Calibrate Coaching recommends honoring your work hours by
not stealing time from your employer. Even if you don’t actually clock in and out with a
time card, focusing on your work responsibilities while you’re at your desk, work station
or production area will showcase your strong work habits.
- Follow Company Policies
Abiding by company policies is a powerful way to demonstrate integrity. Cutting
corners and neglecting to follow workplace regulations can lead to mistakes, problems
and even dangerous situations. Your willingness to properly record financial transactions,
safely dispense of hazardous or toxic materials, follow company protocol for dealing with
clients, perform clean-up or set-up procedures and properly maintain equipment shows
others that you’re not just looking for the easy way out. Establishing yourself as a
trustworthy worker who submits to company policies shows your boss and co-workers
that you’ll faithfully carry out your duties.
- Respect Co-workers and Build Trust
Respecting those you work with reveals your desire to create a healthy work
environment. Polite communication, appropriate interactions and respect for co-workers’
thoughts and ideas demonstrate your ability to look beyond your own interests to pursue
team-centered work goals. As you deal with co-workers honestly and respectfully, you
establish a level of trust with them. According to Amy Rees Anderson, a contributor to
Forbes magazine, those who trust you will spread the word of that trust to their
associates, and word of your character will spread like wildfire.
- Exhibit Responsible Behavior
Integrity in the workplace often stems from moral and ethical behavior. Making sure
there’s no reason to question your conduct is one of the best ways to prove that you are an
honest and dependable employee. Avoid using company products or equipment for
personal use and submit exact receipts for travel or meal reimbursements. Don’t overpromise what you can’t provide and strive to meet deadlines. Work productively and
cooperate during company meetings so you don’t appear lazy or apathetic, and don’t call
in sick if you aren’t. By exhibiting responsible behavior, you don’t give co-workers or
clients the opportunity to question your integrity.
The concept of computer ethics originated in 1950 with the publication of Nobert
Wiener,s book entitles ―The human use of human beings,.
Computer ethics involves a set of moral principles that regulate the use of computers.
The Ten Commandments are as follows:
Do not use the computer in ways that may harm other people.
Explanation: This commandment says that it is unethical to use a computer to
harm another user. It is not limited to physical injury. It includes harming or
corrupting other users’ data or files. The commandment states that it is wrong to
use a computer to steal someone’s personal information. Manipulating or
destroying files of other users is ethically wrong. It is unethical to write programs,
which on execution lead to stealing, copying or gaining unauthorized access to
other users’ data. Being involved in practices like hacking, spamming, phishing or
cyber bullying does not conform to computer ethics.
Do not use computer technology to cause interference in other users’ work.
Explanation: Computer software can be used in ways that disturb other users or
disrupt their work. Viruses, for example, are programs meant to harm useful
computer programs or interfere with the normal functioning of a computer.
Malicious software can disrupt the functioning of computers in more ways than
one. It may overload computer memory through excessive consumption of
computer resources, thus slowing its functioning. It may cause a computer to
function wrongly or even stop working. Using malicious software to attack a
computer is unethical.
Do not spy on another person’s computer data.
Explanation: We know it is wrong to read someone’s personal letters. On the same
lines, it is wrong to read someone else’s email messages or files. Obtaining data
from another person’s private files is nothing less than breaking into someone’s
room. Snooping around in another person’s files or reading someone else’s
personal messages is the invasion of his privacy. There are exceptions to this. For
example, spying is necessary and cannot be called unethical when it is done
against illegitimate use of computers. For example, intelligence agencies working
on cybercrime cases need to spy on the internet activity of suspects.
Do not use computer technology to steal information.
Explanation: Stealing sensitive information or leaking confidential information is
as good as robbery. It is wrong to acquire personal information of employees from
an employee database or patient history from a hospital database or other such
information that is meant to be confidential. Similarly, breaking into a bank
account to collect information about the account or account holder is wrong.
Illegal electronic transfer of funds is a type of fraud. With the use of technology,
stealing of information is much easier. Computers can be used to store stolen
Do not contribute to the spread of misinformation using computer technology.
Explanation: Spread of information has become viral today, because of the
Internet. This also means that false news or rumors can spread speedily through
social networking sites or emails. Being involved in the circulation of incorrect
information is unethical. Mails and pop-ups are commonly used to spread the
wrong information or give false alerts with the only intent of selling products.
Mails from untrusted sources advertising certain products or spreading some hardto-believe information, are not uncommon. Direct or indirect involvement in the
circulation of false information is ethically wrong. Giving wrong information can
hurt other parties or organizations that are affected on that particular theme.
Refrain from copying software or buying pirated copies. Pay for software
unless it is free.
Explanation: Like any other artistic or literary work, software is copyrighted. A
piece of code is the original work of the individual who created it. It is copyrighted
in his/her name. In case of a developer writing software for the organization she
works for, the organization holds the copyright for it. Copyright holds true unless
its creators announce it is not. Obtaining illegal copies of copyrighted software is
unethical. It is not easy to do such things and in the end it will just be copied
Do not use someone else’s computer resources unless authorized to.
Explanation: Multi-user systems have user specific passwords. Breaking into some
other user’s password, thus intruding her private space is unethical. It is not ethical
to hack passwords for gaining unauthorized access to a password-protected
computer system. Accessing data that you are not authorized to access or gaining
access to another user’s computer without her permission is not ethical. Privacy
will always be applied to such resources and were not supposed to get exposed and
hack in such ways that is not yours.
It is wrong to claim ownership on a work which is the output of someone else’s
Explanation: Programs developed by a software developer are her property. If he
is working with an organization, they are the organization’s property. Copying
them and propagating them in one’s own name is unethical. This applies to any
creative work, program or design. Establishing ownership on a work which is not
yours is ethically wrong. Originality of any software/programs are to be keep safe
and trying to claim ownership will cause a viral disputes.
Before developing a software, think about the social impact it can have.
Explanation: Looking at the social consequences that a program can have,
describes a broader perspective of looking at technology. A computer software on
release, reaches millions. Software like video games and animations or educational
software can have a social impact on their users. When working on animation
films or designing video games, for example, it is the programmer’s responsibility
to understand his target audience/users and the effect it may have on them. For
example, a computer game for kids should not have content that can influence
them negatively. Similarly, writing malicious software is ethically wrong. A
software developer/development firm should consider the influence their code can
have on the society at large.
In using computers for communication, be respectful and courteous with the
Explanation: The communication etiquette we follow in the real world applies to
communication over computers as well. While communicating over the Internet,
one should treat others with respect. One should not intrude others’ private space,
use abusive language, make false statements or pass irresponsible remarks about
others. One should be courteous while communicating over the web and should
respect others’ time and resources. Also, one should be considerate with a novice
Business Ethics and Media:
Care must also be taken when making statements to the media that information given is
correct and not misleading. Information which, if made public would be likely to have
material effect on the share price or about certain transactions such as mergers,
acquisitions or disposals or transactions with related parties is subject to specific rules.
Such matters should be referred to the relevant Regional General Counsel. Enquiries
from the media should be referred to company media relations experts and statements
should only be made by designated spokespersons.
Only authorised spokespersons are permitted to represent the company in media or
Social media and Business Ethics
Social media is an umbrella term used to describe social interaction through a suite of
technology based tools, many of which are internet based. This includes, but is not
limited to, internet forums,
Networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and GooglePlus, webcasts, and
Social media exhibits unique characteristics when compared t traditional media forms.
Its speed and scope means that once content is publish edit is available instantaneously,
to a potentially global audience. Social media tools tend to be free or available at a very
low cost relative to other forms of media and do not require users to have much
technical knowledge. This allows larger numbers of individuals to access and publish
material than with traditional media forms.
Social media is usually interactive in a way that traditional media is not, so users can
comment on and edit published material, making it difficult to control content. Social
media blurs private/public boundaries when individuals
ndworklifealsobecomeblurredascompaniesmakeuseofsocial media (originally designed
for personal use) for business purposes, and likewise employees access personalities
while at work. A 2011DLA Piper survey found social media is used for personal and
work related activities by 95% of employees.
These unique characteristics of social media pose ethical challenges for business, through
employees use of social media on behalf of the company, as well as their personal use.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a business approach that contributes to
sustainable development by delivering economics, social and environmental benefits for
CSR is a concept with many definitions and practices. The way it is understood and
implemented differs greatly.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a business approach that contributes to
sustainable development by delivering economic, socil and environmental benefits for all
CSR is a concept with many definitions and practices. The way it is understood and
implemented differs greatly for each company and country. Moreover, CSR is a very
broad concept that addresses many and various topics such as human rights, corporate
governance, health and safety, environmental effects, working conditions and
contribution to economic development. Whatever the definition is, the purpose of CSR is
to drive change towards sustainability.
Examples of Corporate Social Responsibility in India
Tata Group in India has a range of CSR projects, most of which are community
improvement programs. For example, it is a leading provider of maternal and child health
services, family planning, and has provided 98 percent immunization in Jamshedpur. The
company also endorses sports as a way of life. It has established a football academy,
archery academy, and promotes sports among employees. It offers healthcare services all
over the country with programs like rural health development.
Tata Group also has an organized relief program in case of natural disasters, including
long-term treatment and rebuilding efforts. It did laudable work during the Gujarat
earthquakes and Orissa floods. It also supports education, with over 500 schools, and also
is a benefactor of the arts and culture. It has done abundant work in improving the
environment and local populations around its industries.
Aptech a leading education player with a global presence that has played a broad and
continued role in encouraging and nurturing education throughout the country since its
inception. As a global player with complete solutions-providing capabilities, Aptech has
a long history of participating in community activities. It has, in association with leading
NGOs, provided computers at schools, education to the deprived, and training and
Infosys is aggressively involved in a variety of community growth programs. In 1996, the
company created the Infosys Foundation as a not-for-profit trust to which it contributes
up to 1 percent of profits after tax every year. Moreover, the Education and Research
Department at Infosys also works with employee volunteers on community development
The management team at Infosys continues to set examples in the area of corporate
citizenship and has involved itself vigorously in key national bodies. They have taken
initiatives to work in the areas of research and education, community service, rural
outreach programs, employment, healthcare for the poor, education, arts and culture, and
welfare activities undertaken by the Infosys Foundation.
Mahindra & Mahindra
At Mahindra & Mahindra, The K. C. Mahindra Education Trust was established in 1953
with the purpose of promoting education. Its vision is to renovate the lives of people in
India through education and financial assistance across age groups and across income
strata. The K. C. Mahindra Education Trust undertakes a number of education plans,
which make a difference to the lives of worthy students. The Trust has provided more
than Rs. 7.5 crore in the form of grants, scholarships and loans. It promotes education
mostly by the way of scholarships. The Nanhi Kali (children) project has over 3,300
children under it and the company aims to increase the number to 10,000 in the next two
years by reaching out to the underprivileged children, especially in rural areas
If you enjoyed this post don’t forget to like, follow, share and comment!
Donate to pentareddyn.com
Will you help keep HelpGuide free for all?
One in four people will struggle with mental health at some point in their lives. And with the coronavirus pandemic and troubled economy, many are in crisis right now. More than ever, people need a trustworthy place to turn to for guidance and hope. That is our mission at HelpGuide. Our free online resources ensure that everyone can get the help they need when they need it—no matter what health insurance they have, where they live, or what they can afford. But as a nonprofit that doesn’t run ads or accept corporate sponsorships, we need your help. If you have already contributed, thank you. If you haven’t, please consider helping us reach those who need it: Donate today from as little as $3.
pentareddyn.com is entirely supported by the general public.
Your donations pay for pentareddyn.com projects, staff, servers and protective infrastructure.
Your contribution is highly appreciated.
current affairs program. Get our tips straight to your inbox, and become a better leader