Business Communication

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Business Communication
Unit 1: Theory of Communication
Chapter I
Concept of Communication
The English word ‘communication’ has been derived from the Latin word, ‘Communicare’ which means
to impart or participate or to transmit. The word ‘Communicare’ is derived from the root ‘Communis’
which means to make common or to share.
Communication is 1) the activity or process of sharing or exchanging ideas, feelings, information,
experience between two or more persons; 2) an act or instance of transmitting; 3) the information
actually communicated by some means.
Definitions of communication:
1) The Oxford English Dictionary defines communication as “the action of conveying or exchanging
information and ideas.”
2) Peter Little defines communication as “the process by which information is transmitted between
individuals and or organizations so that an understanding response results.”
3) Allen Lui (Louis) defines communication as “ Communication is the sum of all the things one person
does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It is a bridge of meaning. It
involves a systematic process of telling, listening, understanding and responding.”
4) Keith Davis defines communication as “Communication is the transfer of information and
understanding from one person to another.”
Business Communication:
William G. Scott defines business communication as “Administrative communication is a process which
involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of
eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals.”
The last definition covers 4 aspects of administrative communication, as follows:
1) The sender’s ability to transmit his own ideas accurately.
2) The receiver’s mental ability to get the same idea as were transmitted i.e. accurate replication.
3) The feedback or the receiver’s response.
4) Eliciting action which will help to achieve the goals.
The process of communication involves a series of stages:
1) An idea arises in the mind of the sender, which he wants to share.
2) The sender encodes the idea in the form of a ‘message’.
3) The sender chooses some medium / channel to put across the message.
4) The receiver receives the message.
5) The receiver decodes – absorbs, understands, interprets the message.
6) The receiver sends feedback or his response.
The components or elements of the communication process are as follows:
1) The sender or the communicator
2) The message
3) Encoding
4) The medium / channel
5) The receiver
6) Decoding
7) Feedback
Importance of feedback in the process of communicationEffective feedback, both positive and negative, is very helpful. Feedback is valuable information that will
be used to make important decisions.
After getting the meaning of the message‘, the receiver provides feedback‘ which he =encodes‘ in the
form of a response/reaction/reply to the message. Feedback plays an important part in the
communication process, because it is desired and expected by both the sender‘ and the receiver‘. The
sender‘ wants to know whether and how his =message‘ has been received, and the =receiver‘, either
consciously or unconsciously, usually provides a sign indicating that he has received the message.
It should be noted that feedback may be positive or negative. Positive feedback indicates to the sender
the fact that his message has been received, understood, and accepted; and that he can proceed to the
next point. Negative feedback tells the sender that his message has not been properly understood. It,
therefore, functions as a corrective, as it makes the =sender‘ realize the defects or flaws in his manner
of encoding. He will, therefore, have to encode the same message in a different way, so as to enable the
=receiver‘ to understand it.
Feedback may be immediate or delayed. In the case of interpersonal communication it is quick, as the
sender is able to observe the response/reaction (e.g. a smile, nod, frown etc.) when he is conveying the
message. He can also guess whether the =receiver‘ agrees or disagrees with him.
However, in the case of a letter, feedback may be delayed as the =receiver‘ will take time to reply.
Sometimes, feedback is obtained indirectly, by observing the subsequent change of behaviour on the
part of the =receiver‘.
Feedback is very important in business. It is important for the businessperson to know whether his/her
clients and customers are satisfied with the products and services, or whether s/he needs to make
changes. Feedback from employees is also necessary to improve the performance of an organization.
The diagrammatical representation of the communication process can be shown as follows:
How to achieve effective communication:
1) Communicate for a purpose
2) Compose message with care
3) Study the receiver
4) Select appropriate medium
5) Provide feedback
6) Act promptly on receiving feedback.
Benefits of effective communication:

  1. Healthy relations
  2. Better performance
  3. High morale
  4. Good image unity
  5. Reaching final goals
  6. Smooth functioning
  7. Greater efficiency
  8. Higher productivity
  9. Effective decision-making
  10. Co-operation & Co-ordination
    Students are suppose to prepare notes on their own.
    Emergence of communication as a key concept in the corporate and global world.
    Impact of technology enabled communication : Types – Internet, Blogs, E-mail, Moodle, Social
    media (Facebook, twitter and Whatsapp advantages and disadvantages)
    Sender Channel / Medium Receiver
    Chapter II
    Channels and Objectives of Communication
    Formal Communication
    Downward communication:
    Needed For:
    1) To get the work done.
    2) To prepare the workforce for challenges
    3) To tackle misinformation & suspicion arising out of it
    4) To create a feeling of pride & confidence in the workforce I order to motivate it and to
    boost its morale.
    5) To transmit work ethics & the organization‘s culture.
    Advantage Disadvantage
    Discipline Lack of vision & arbitrary decision making can
    prove detrimental and harmful to the
    Implementation of orders happen
    Balance in sharing information is important so
    is indicious use of discretion
    Tasks & positions can be well defined Delay implementation of decisions
    Clarity in the minds of employees about
    their responsibility, avoids confusion
    Oral communication leads to information loss,
    distraction & lack of accountability
    It helps in uniting different level of
    authority & brings in team spirit
    Absence of feedback mechanistic can lead to
    frustration, lack of trust in authority & feel
    Upward communication:
    Needed for:
    1) To forward employee-feedback
    2) To report on official matters
    3) To give voice on the difficulties, grievances, complaints, dissatisfaction, work related
    demands of employees
    4) To invite suggestion, creativity & participation in problem solving
    5) To create a sense of belonging through participation
    Advantage Disadvantage
    Employees participation Failure on the part of subordinates to take
    initiative & participate in the decision making
    Trust , emotional bonding,
    understanding & cooperation between
    management & employees
    Long line of authority, inability of the seniors
    to listen or to act, create barriers
    Employees enthusiastic Delays due to slow transmission, distortion of
    communication further hamper the process
    Authority earns subordinates
    cooperation response to management‘s
    Employees failure to handle upwards
    1) Chain should be start
    2) Executives should be trained for excellent listening skills
    3) The organizations atmosphere should be conducive
    Vertical Communication:
    While Decisions are finally taken by the top management, there is room for employee
    feedback, communication, wherein the management interacts with employees, invites
    their participation in decision making, creates mechanisms to address their concerns
    without compromising on its measures of control is called vertical communication.
    Horizontal / Lateral Communication:
    Need for:
    1) To exchange official information
    2) To create understanding and team spirit among members
    3) To solve difficulties
    4) To seek and extend co-operation
    5) To save time when quick decisions have to be made
    Advantage Disadvantage
    Helps in clarifying doubts, taking quick
    decisions & eliminating mistrust
    Ungoverned horizontal communication to leads
    to discipline
    It brings about better coordination,
    builds team spirit and ensure faster
    implementation of decisions
    Employees tend to waste precious time arguing
    and debating over issues and decisions
    It also check the grapevine
    1) Employee must learn to extend cooperation & work towards achieving goals
    2) The authority should delegate responsibilities to subordinates in order to quicken the
    pace of work.
    3) Horizontal Communication needs to be monitored as its uncontrolled transmission can
    invite problems for the organization.
    Diagonal / Crosswise
    Needs for:
    1) Speeds up the flow of information
    2) Creates healthy work relationships
    3) Brings in proper co-ordination among different sections
    4) Makes problem solving easy
    5) Controls distortion & dilution of message because of direct, inter leave communication
    1) Organizations atmosphere should be trust & transparency
    2) Proper training or orientation should be given to employees to handle diagonal
    Advantage Disadvantage
    Speeds up the flow of information It is likely to bypass the vertical chain of
    commands. This may create doubts in the
    minds of bypassed superiors
    Creates healthy work relationships It may be seen as interference
    Brings in proper co-ordination among
    different sections
    It may create doubts the superior‘s
    accountability & cooperation
    Makes problem solving easy Decisions thus taken may be resisted by the
    bypassed authority and could spoil the
    organization atmosphere
    Controls distortion & dilution of
    message because of direct, inter leave
    Grapevine is the plant or creeper on which grapes grow. The grapevine may glow or
    move in any direction with the support of its tendrils. In the some way, informal
    communication can move in any direction with the support of informal groups.
    How it is generated?
    1) People need to share & agree on important opinions & attitudes to feel that they belong
    to a group
    2) People need to share their hopes & ambitions with superiors
    3) People need to express emotions such as joy, anger, hostility etc.
    4) Because of the rigidity of the formal, structure, the people feel the need to bypass
    ―official channels‖ for the sake of expediency in getting & giving information about
    performance on the job.
    The various types of grapevine are:
    1) Chain
    2) Single strand chain
    3) Gossip Chain
    4) Probability Chain
    5) Cluster Chain
    6) Wheel
    7) Star
    Advantage Disadvantage
    Grapevine communication travels fast,
    It has vast reach
    Negative information half truths, personalized
    accounts of events, gross distortions are passed
    on by the render
    The content because of its immense
    personal appeal are readily believable
    It often leads to lack of motivation & moral of
    Management must be aware of the power of grapevine, it can often fail the formal
    system, it is difficult to trace its origin & is difficult to stop or control completely.
    Guidelines for Management
    1) Circulate information that is accurate & strengthen upward channels of communication
    2) Delegate responsibility & entrust employees with specific responsibility to strengthen
    trust between itself & employees
    3) Invite suggestion farm grievance & redress cells, publishing house journals, make
    effective use of bulletins, notice boards & employee welfare schemes
    4) Either cut the grapevine with official communication or use grapevine itself to
    circulate official information
    1) Information :
    About organization, rules, regulations, culture, products, market, research, decisions,
    vision, mission, goal etc.
    2) Advice & Counseling:
    Providing guidance is yet another objective of downward communication, seniors,
    experts can help
    employees with troubleshooting & crisis management, assist them in solving problems
    that can forge bonds between employees & the managements.
    3) Order & Instructions:
    Orders & instruction means is giving directions to the employees. Any authoritative
    communication issued by a superior in order to monitor / govern the behavior of a junior
    is know as a ‗order‘ when an orders is split furthers to meet specific issue, it becomes
    4) Suggestion:
    To suggest means to propose or put forward an idea for consideration both upward &
    communication. Employee participation & involvement encourage creative thinking &
    exposure to employee‘s talent. Employees feel valued & develop a sense of belonging.
    5) Persuasion:
    Persuasion is an effort to influence the mind, belief system or attitude of a person to
    bring about the desired change in his / her behavior.

4 Steps to take while persuading :
1) Identification
2) Preparing the Receiver
3) Deliver the message
4) Prompting action
Important Factor:
1) Persuader‘s personal character & reputation
2) Persuader must make suitable & effective emotional appeal
3) Persuader must logically present his ideas, views etc. There must be reasonable
presentation of the persuaded messages.
6) Education & Training:
At the management level, at the employee‘s level and at the level of outside public.
7) Motivation:
Motivation means that inner state that energizes activates or moves and which directs
or channels
behavior towards certain goal.
Setting up the right kind of justice & rewards system & inviting the employee‘s
participation in decision making can create the right kind of emotional environment
8) Raising the moral of Employees:
Consequences of high moral & low moral.
Management can boost the moral of its employees by giving basis infrastructural
support, creating systems that reward effort, strengthening its official channels of
communication, encouraging upward
Communication, controlling the grapevine & taking measures to earn the trust of
Certain strategies opted by MNCs to boost morale of the employees:

  1. Keep employees feeling their work is more than just a job.
    Everyone wants to feel that his or her work has a higher purpose. Sometimes,
    though, that purpose gets lost in the day-to-day grind. One of the key ways that, an online job-search company, based in Glen Allen, Virginia,
    inspires its 126 employees is by sharing “I Got a Job!” stories that show them the
    value of their work. Circulated by email, the real-life stories come from grateful
    job seekers who recently landed a new job through the company’s website.
  2. Take time to creatively celebrate accomplishments.
    It’s natural to focus on what’s ahead rather than reflect on how much has been
    achieved. Taking time to reflect, though, helps employees appreciate how much
    they have done. All departments at Acuity, a financial-services company based in
    Sheboygan, Wis., are asked each year to recognize their own work by providing a
    list of significant accomplishments of their team. The lists are reviewed by Acuity
    officers, who select the 100 most outstanding achievements for inclusion in a “Top
    100 Accomplishments” list. The latest list was designed as a book, Acuity World
    Records, with the help of Guinness World Records, and given to all 831
  3. Grant time off to employees to pursue projects they are passionate about.
    Personal projects can provide an energizing break from regular responsibilities and
    can serve as a source of innovation for a company. Atlassian, a developer of
    collaboration software based in Sydney, encourages creativity during its “FedEx
    Day.” During this event, all 62 employees can work on anything that excites them
    — as long as it is somewhat related to Atlassian products or processes, can be
    completed in the allotted time, and is fun. Employees have from 2 p.m. on a
    Thursday until 4 p.m. Friday, giving them roughly 24 hours to deliver a project
    (thus the name, FedEx Day). Then at a presentation, participants show off the
    results of their projects. From these ideas, Atlassian has adopted more than a
    dozen projects, ranging from product upgrades to process improvements.
  4. Mix up the company’s usual way of doing things.
    Departing from the customary routine of meetings and cubicle life can go a long
    way toward building morale. The accounting firm Ehrhardt Keefe Steiner &
    Hottman, based in Denver, uses the concept of neighborhoods to shake things up.
    All 387 employees are organized into neighborhoods, based on the floors or
    sections of floors in each office. These groups have regular get-togethers and
    shape the contours of meetings. For example, during an all-employee meeting day,
    as the firm staged a neighborhood basketball tournament, each group came up
    with team names, homemade jerseys, mascots, and cheerleaders.
  5. Don’t forget to have fun.
    For the online discounter FatWallet, based in Rockton, Ill., fun is a regular part of
    the schedule. Its 55 employees are invited to play in a monthly Game Day, an inhouse competition with activities ranging from Trivial Pursuit to Wii bowling
    matches. The company also offers quarterly “fun” rewards when staffers achieve
    certain goals, such as hockey games, casino nights, or playdays at at amusement
    parks. Team-building events have included a city scavenger hunt in Chicago and a
    rooftop Cubs game.
  6. Train employees to develop positive attitudes.
    During the height of the recession in 2009, employee morale became a big issue
    for 4Imprint, a maker of customized promotional products, based in Oshkosh,
    Wis. The company’s training team decided to try to boost morale by setting up
    classes for the 419 employees to watch and discuss videos with inspiring themes
    like Lance Armstrong’s comeback from cancer and the friendly culture at
    Southwest Airlines.
  7. Offer time away from the office to do some good.
    Another way to build employee morale and camaraderie is through community
    service. Studer Group, a Gulf Breeze, Fla.-based management consulting firm,
    gives its 114 employees four paid hours a month to volunteer for a charitable
    initiative or organization of their choice. Departments also take on volunteer
    projects as a group.
  8. Free Yoga classes
  9. Team-based commissions
    10.Work/life balance is encouraged with flexible schedules.
  10. on-site gym available to all employees
    12.state-of-the-art office
  11. extensive training programs
  12. a profit-sharing plan
    15.Unlimited vacation days
    16.Allowing pets in the office
    For example Google does the following things:
  13. Google provides the surviving spouse or partner of a deceased employee 50% of
    their salary for the next 10 years.
  14. Googlers in San Francisco and Mountain View report being able to bring their pets
    to work.
  15. Employees in Mountain View, California, and New York City have an on-site
  16. They can also enjoy beer and wine in the office on Fridays.
  17. Googlers get free meals and snacks in the office, which one Glassdoor reviewer
    called “varied and delicious.” Reviewers called the food “healthy,” “tasty,” and
    even “on par with any of the top restaurants in NYC.”
  18. Google offers a 50% 401k match up to $8,250.
  19. New mothers get paid leave up to 22 weeks, while fathers and adoptive parents get
    between seven and 12 weeks of paid leave. One senior software engineer wrote the
    benefit “…helps create an understanding that any team member might go on leave
    now and again, and that this is expected and normal and okay.”
  20. First year engineers get 15 days of paid time off — that jumps to 20 days after
    three years and 25 days after five years. And anyone can take an unpaid three
    month leave of absence.
    9) Warning & Reprimand:
    To warn is to inform a person of unpleasant consequences.
    Management notices the misdemeanor and brings it to the notice of the concerned
    employee—– Oral or Soft warning —– Warning in writing or memo—- After 2 memos
    are issued service of the employee is terminated.
    Chapter III : Methods & Modes of Communication
    Methods – Verbal & Non verbal
    Media – Telephone, Fax, Computer, Internet.
    Methods Modes
    Verbal Non-verbal Electronics
    Oral Written Body language Silence Fax
    Face-to-face Letters Facial
    Signs Computers
    Telephone Memos Gestures Postures Internet
    Notices Posters Colours E-mail
    Circulars Dress &
    Reports Proxemics Graphs &
    Selection of methods should be based on –
  21. Speed 2. Accuracy 3. Circumstances 4. Confidence and safety 5. Expenses
  22. Impression 7. Feedback
    Oral Communication: Oral communication is communication by means of spoken
    Principles of oral communications:
  23. Know your objective
  24. Know your audience
  25. Know your subject
  26. Know how to use your voice
  27. Know how to use body language
  28. Know when to stop
  29. Its direct & time saving 2. It saves money
  30. It conveys the exact meaning of
  31. It provides immediate feedback
  32. It is more persuasive in nature 6. On-the-spot additions, deletions and
    corrections are possible
  33. Confidential messages can be
  34. It is informal and friendlier
  35. Develop relations 10.Motivates the speaker.
  36. It lacks legal validity 2. Possibility of misunderstanding
  37. It lacks accountability 4. Problem of retention
  38. The need for good speaking skills 6. Not always effective
  39. Lacks planning 8. Diversion of subject matter
    Face-to-face communication
    Advantages Disadvantages
  40. Combination of verbal & non-verbal
  41. Difficult to practice in large
  42. Immediate feedback possible 2. Not effective if the receiver does not pay
  43. Modifications while delivering the
    message is possible
  44. Not effective in large gatherings
  45. Particularly suitable for discussions
    Written communication: Written communication is the expression of language by
    means of visible signs.
    Advantages Disadvantage
  46. Reference 1. Time, trouble & expenses
  47. Permanent record 2. Feedback is slow
  48. Legal validity 3. Problem of storage
  49. Aids memory & retention 4. Lacks friendliness
  50. Accurate & organized 5. Unsuited to countries where illiteracy
    rate is high
  51. Fixing responsibility 6. Problem of instant clarification
  52. Wider reach 7. Problem of writers
  53. Goodwill 8. Problem of communicating secret
  54. Less chances of misunderstanding
    10.Suitable for lengthy messages
    11.Corporate image
    Non-verbal Communication:
    Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. Most of us
    spend about 75 percent of our waking hours communicating our knowledge, thoughts,
    and ideas to others. However, most of us fail to realize that a great deal of our
    communication is of a non-verbal form as opposed to the oral and written forms. Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body
    posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear
    our clothes or the silence we keep.
    In person-to-person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously.
    If the nonverbal cues and the spoken message are incongruous, the flow of
    communication is hindered. Right or wrong, the receiver of the communication tends to
    base the intentions of the sender on the non- verbal cues he receives.
    Categories and Features
    G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:
    Physical. This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone
    of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions.
    Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative
    expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing.
    Signs. This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal
    flags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens.
    Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or egobuilding symbols.
    Our concern here will be with what Porter has called the physical method of non-verbal
    Knowledge of non-verbal communication is important managers who serve as leaders
    of organizational “teams,” for at least two reasons:
     To function effectively as a team leader the manager must interact with the other
    members successfully. Non-verbal cues, when interpreted correctly, provide him
    with one means to do so.
     The team members project attitudes and feelings through non-verbal
    communication. Some personal needs such as approval, growth, achievement, and
    recognition may be met in effective teams. The extent to which these needs are
    met is closely related to how perceptive the team leader and team members are to
    non-verbal communication in themselves and in others on the team.
    If the team members show a true awareness to non-verbal cues, the organization
    will have a better chance to succeed, for it will be an open, honest, and confronting unit.
    Argyle and his associates have been studying the features of nonverbal communication
    that provide information to managers and their team members.
    Non verbal communication is indirect, without words or without verbal messages. Non
    verbal communication constitutes 45% of the impact of message in oral communication.
    The major elements of non-verbal communication can be divided into body language
    (Kinesics), vocal tone, space & proximics, dress & grooming etc.
  55. Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. The
    superior in the organization generally maintains eye contact longer than the
    subordinate. The direct stare of the sender of the message conveys candor and
    openness. It elicits a feeling of trust. Downward glances are generally associated
    with modesty. Eyes rolled upward are associated with fatigue.
  56. Facial Expressions. A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey
    information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are
    monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these
    expressions may be similar across cultures.
  57. Gestures : One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a
    hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While
    some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others
    are individually learned and idiosyncratic.
    A gesture is an action of body , hand or head, which conveys a message. Eg: yes,
    no, Namaste, wait.
    a. Communicating information: eg: ‗V‘ sign, pointing finger etc.
    b. Communicating information : eg: clapping indicates appreciation, fistclenching shows aggression, face touching shows anxiety
    c. Supports speech
    d. Expressing self image
  58. Posture: The way we stand or sit, the position of the hand & head, basically how
    we carry ourselves. Eg. Hunched shoulders show low confidence, in emergency a
    person tends to sit on the edge of a chair. Posture can be used to determine a
    participant‘s degree of attention or involvement, the difference in status between
    communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the other
    communicator. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal
    relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures, where one person‘s
    left side is parallel to the other‘s right side, leads to favorable perception of
    communicators and positive speech; a person who displays a forward lean or a
    decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during
    communication. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean,
    body orientation, arm position, and body openness.
  59. Tactile Communication
    Communication through touch is obviously non-verbal. Used properly it can
    create a more direct message than dozens of words; used improperly it can build
    barriers and cause mistrust. You can easily invade someone’s space through this
    type of communication. If it is used reciprocally, it indicates solidarity; if not used
    reciprocally, it tends to indicate differences in status. Touch not only facilitates the
    sending of the message, but the emotional impact of the message as well.
  60. Dress & grooming : Uniforms have both a functional and a communicative
    purpose. This man’s clothes identify him as male and a police officer; his badges
    and shoulder sleeve insignia give information about his job and rank. Elements
    such as physique, height, weight, hair, skin color, gender, odors, and clothing send
    nonverbal messages during interaction.
  61. Proxemics: Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical
    space around them. The space between the sender and the receiver of a message
    influences the way the message is interpreted.
    The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures and different
    settings within cultures. Space in nonverbal communication may be divided into
    four main categories: intimate, social, personal, and public space.
    The term territoriality is still used in the study of proxemics to explain human
    behavior regarding personal space. Hargie & Dickson (2004, p. 69) identify 4 such
    1) Primary territory: this refers to an area that is associated with someone who has
    exclusive use of it. For example, a house that others cannot enter without the
    owner‘s permission.
    2) Secondary territory: unlike the previous type, there is no ―right‖ to occupancy, but
    people may still feel some degree of ownership of a particular space. For example,
    someone may sit in the same seat on train every day and feel aggrieved if someone
    else sits there.
    3) Public territory: this refers to an area that is available to all, but only for a set
    period, such as a parking space or a seat in a library. Although people have only a
    limited claim over that space, they often exceed that claim. For example, it was
    found that people take longer to leave a parking space when someone is waiting to
    take that space.
    4) Interaction territory: this is space created by others when they are interacting. For
    example, when a group is talking to each other on a footpath, others will walk
    around the group rather than disturb it.
    Space can also be divided into :
    a. Intimate distance
    b. Personal distance
    c. Social distance
    d. Public distance
  62. Paralanguage: Includes pitch, volume, intonation etc. The tone of voice, rate of
    speech, pause, accent can not only communicate but alter the meaning
    significantly. Researchers have found that the tone, pitch, quality of voice, and
    rate of speaking convey emotions that can be accurately judged regardless of the
    content of the message. The important thing to gain from this is that the voice is
    important, not just as the conveyor of the message, but as a complement to the
    message. As a communicator you should be sensitive to the influence of tone,
    pitch, and quality of your voice on the interpretation of your message by the
  63. Silence
    Silence can be a positive or negative influence in the communications process. It can
    provide a link between messages or sever relationships. It can create tension and
    uneasiness or create a peaceful situation. Silence can also be judgmental by indicating
    favor or disfavor – agreement or disagreement.
    For example, suppose a manager finds a couple of his staff members resting.
    If he believes these staff members are basically lazy, the idleness conveys to him that
    they are “goofing off” and should be given additional assignments.
    If he believes these staff members are self-motivated and good workers, the idleness
    conveys to him that they are taking a well-deserved “break.”
    If he is personally insecure, the idleness conveys to him that they are threatening his
    Time can be an indicator of status. How long will you give the staff member who wishes
    to speak to you? How long will you make him wait to see you? Do you maintain a
    schedule? Is your schedule such that your subordinates must arrange their schedules to
    suit yours? In a healthy organization, the manager and his subordinates use time to
    communicate their mutual respect to each other.
    11.Visual & Auditory Signs & Signals: The word sign has been derived from the
    latin word signum which means mark. Signs eg. Plus, minus, multiplication,
    divisions, can be used in chemistry, maths, music, road signs etc. Auditory signs
    includes door bell, college bell, ambulance siren etc.
    12.Posters: Posters are combination of verbal & non-verbal factors, because they
    consists of pictures as well as words. Posters have three parts namely :
    e. Headline : This is short but catchy slogan
    f. Illustration: This is the visual part consisting of pictures or photographs.
    g. Copy : This is the written matter, which gives necessary details.
     like old communist poster hero
     key word – be inspired
     shirt and white tie
     looking up into the sky
     sharp clean holy preacher
     suit – businesslike
     angle of face – on a mission –
    sun over flag
    A new day dawning in America
    13.Colours : Color is a form of non verbal communication. It is not a static energy
    and its meaning can change from one day to the next with any individual – it all
    depends on what energy they are expressing at that point in time. Every colour
    represents something.
    Color Meaning
    Red is the color of fire and blood, so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength,
    power, determination as well as passion, desire, and love.
    Red is a very emotionally intense color. It enhances human metabolism, increases
    respiration rate, and raises blood pressure. It has very high visibility, which is why stop
    signs, stoplights, and fire equipment are usually painted red. In heraldry, red is used to
    indicate courage. It is a color found in many national flags.
    Red brings text and images to the foreground. Use it as an accent color to stimulate
    people to make quick decisions; it is a perfect color for ‘Buy Now’ or ‘Click Here’ buttons
    on Internet banners and websites. In advertising, red is often used to evoke erotic feelings
    (red lips, red nails, red-light districts, ‘Lady in Red’, etc). Red is widely used to indicate
    danger (high voltage signs, traffic lights). This color is also commonly associated with
    energy, so you can use it when promoting energy drinks, games, cars, items related to
    sports and high physical activity.
    Light red represents joy, sexuality, passion, sensitivity, and love.
    Pink signifies romance, love, and friendship. It denotes feminine qualities and
    Dark red is associated with vigor, willpower, rage, anger, leadership, courage, longing,
    malice, and wrath.
    Brown suggests stability and denotes masculine qualities.
    Reddish-brown is associated with harvest and fall.
    Orange combines the energy of red and the happiness of yellow. It is associated with joy,
    sunshine, and the tropics. Orange represents enthusiasm, fascination, happiness,
    creativity, determination, attraction, success, encouragement, and stimulation.
    To the human eye, orange is a very hot color, so it gives the sensation of heat.
    Nevertheless, orange is not as aggressive as red. Orange increases oxygen supply to the
    brain, produces an invigorating effect, and stimulates mental activity. It is highly
    accepted among young people. As a citrus color, orange is associated with healthy food
    and stimulates appetite. Orange is the color of fall and harvest. In heraldry, orange is
    symbolic of strength and endurance.
    Orange has very high visibility, so you can use it to catch attention and highlight the most
    important elements of your design. Orange is very effective for promoting food products
    and toys.
    Dark orange can mean deceit and distrust.
    Red-orange corresponds to desire, sexual passion, pleasure, domination, aggression, and
    thirst for action.
    Gold evokes the feeling of prestige. The meaning of gold is illumination, wisdom, and
    wealth. Gold often symbolizes high quality.
    Yellow is the color of sunshine. It’s associated with joy, happiness, intellect, and energy.
    Yellow produces a warming effect, arouses cheerfulness, stimulates mental activity, and
    generates muscle energy. Yellow is often associated with food. Bright, pure yellow is an
    attention getter, which is the reason taxicabs are painted this color. When overused,
    yellow may have a disturbing effect; it is known that babies cry more in yellow rooms.
    Yellow is seen before other colors when placed against black; this combination is often
    used to issue a warning. In heraldry, yellow indicates honor and loyalty. Later the
    meaning of yellow was connected with cowardice.
    Use yellow to evoke pleasant, cheerful feelings. You can choose yellow to promote
    children’s products and items related to leisure. Yellow is very effective for attracting
    attention, so use it to highlight the most important elements of your design. Men usually
    perceive yellow as a very lighthearted, ‘childish’ color, so it is not recommended to use
    yellow when selling prestigious, expensive products to men – nobody will buy a yellow
    business suit or a yellow Mercedes. Yellow is an unstable and spontaneous color, so
    avoid using yellow if you want to suggest stability and safety. Light yellow tends to
    disappear into white, so it usually needs a dark color to highlight it. Shades of yellow are
    visually unappealing because they loose cheerfulness and become dingy.
    Dull (dingy) yellow represents caution, decay, sickness, and jealousy.
    Light yellow is associated with intellect, freshness, and joy.
    Green is the color of nature. It symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility.
    Green has strong emotional correspondence with safety. Dark green is also commonly
    associated with money.
    Green has great healing power. It is the most restful color for the human eye; it can
    improve vision. Green suggests stability and endurance. Sometimes green denotes lack of
    experience; for example, a ‘greenhorn’ is a novice. In heraldry, green indicates growth
    and hope. Green, as opposed to red, means safety; it is the color of free passage in road
    Use green to indicate safety when advertising drugs and medical products. Green is
    directly related to nature, so you can use it to promote ‘green’ products. Dull, darker green
    is commonly associated with money, the financial world, banking, and Wall Street.
    Dark green is associated with ambition, greed, and jealousy.
    Yellow-green can indicate sickness, cowardice, discord, and jealousy.
    Aqua is associated with emotional healing and protection.
    Olive green is the traditional color of peace.
    Blue is the color of the sky and sea. It is often associated with depth and stability. It
    symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth, and heaven.
    Blue is considered beneficial to the mind and body. It slows human metabolism and
    produces a calming effect. Blue is strongly associated with tranquility and calmness. In
    heraldry, blue is used to symbolize piety and sincerity.
    You can use blue to promote products and services related to cleanliness (water
    purification filters, cleaning liquids, vodka), air and sky (airlines, airports, air
    conditioners), water and sea (sea voyages, mineral water). As opposed to emotionally
    warm colors like red, orange, and yellow; blue is linked to consciousness and intellect.
    Use blue to suggest precision when promoting high-tech products.
    Blue is a masculine color; according to studies, it is highly accepted among males. Dark
    blue is associated with depth, expertise, and stability; it is a preferred color for corporate
    Avoid using blue when promoting food and cooking, because blue suppresses appetite.
    When used together with warm colors like yellow or red, blue can create high-impact,
    vibrant designs; for example, blue-yellow-red is a perfect color scheme for a superhero.
    Light blue is associated with health, healing, tranquility, understanding, and softness.
    Dark blue represents knowledge, power, integrity, and seriousness.
    Purple combines the stability of blue and the energy of red. Purple is associated with
    royalty. It symbolizes power, nobility, luxury, and ambition. It conveys wealth and
    extravagance. Purple is associated with wisdom, dignity, independence, creativity,
    mystery, and magic.
    According to surveys, almost 75 percent of pre-adolescent children prefer purple to all
    other colors. Purple is a very rare color in nature; some people consider it to be artificial.
    Light purple is a good choice for a feminine design. You can use bright purple when
    promoting children’s products.
    Light purple evokes romantic and nostalgic feelings.
    Dark purple evokes gloom and sad feelings. It can cause frustration.
    White is associated with light, goodness, innocence, purity, and virginity. It is considered
    to be the color of perfection.
    White means safety, purity, and cleanliness. As opposed to black, white usually has a
    positive connotation. White can represent a successful beginning. In heraldry, white
    depicts faith and purity.
    In advertising, white is associated with coolness and cleanliness because it’s the color of
    snow. You can use white to suggest simplicity in high-tech products. White is an
    appropriate color for charitable organizations; angels are usually imagined wearing white
    clothes. White is associated with hospitals, doctors, and sterility, so you can use white to
    suggest safety when promoting medical products. White is often associated with low
    weight, low-fat food, and dairy products.
    Black is associated with power, elegance, formality, death, evil, and mystery.
    Black is a mysterious color associated with fear and the unknown (black holes). It usually
    has a negative connotation (blacklist, black humor, ‘black death’). Black denotes strength
    and authority; it is considered to be a very formal, elegant, and prestigious color (black
    tie, black Mercedes). In heraldry, black is the symbol of grief.
    Black gives the feeling of perspective and depth, but a black background diminishes
    readability. A black suit or dress can make you look thinner. When designing for a
    gallery of art or photography, you can use a black or gray background to make the other
    colors stand out. Black contrasts well with bright colors. Combined with red or orange –
    other very powerful colors – black gives a very aggressive color scheme.
    eg. Traffic signals, Interpretation of different colours like red represents danger or
    is considered as auspicious in wedding, white purity or peace etc.
    Colours and Branding:
    A brand‘s logo and visual identity will comprise a number of visual cues, such
    as shapes, symbols, number, and words. But the number one visual component
    that people remember most is colour. In fact, colour increases brand recognition
    by up to 80%.
    When it comes to branding, the power of color is both emotional and practical.
    On an emotional level, color can affect how consumers feel when they look at a
    brand, while on a practical level it can help a brand stand out in the crowd.
    A number of studies on the relationship between color and branding
    (here, here and here) reveal that up to 90% of snap judgments made about
    products can be based on color alone, that colors influence how consumers view
    the ‗personality‘ of the brand in question, and that the relationship between
    brands and color hinges on the perceived appropriateness of the color being the
    right ‗fit‘ for the particular brand.
    Whether you’re a designer or a business owner, it’s helpful to know color
    meanings and symbolism so you can make informed decisions. If you choose a
    color meaning ‘tranquility’ for your extreme sports brand, you might be sending
    the wrong message.
    This is all well and good, but how do you go about choosing a color that
    suits your brand? In this article, we will examine the use of color in branding
    and give you an 11-color guide to help you choose the perfect one for your
  64. Red – For Danger, Passion, Excitement & Energy
    Meanings: Red has a number of different contextual associations and in
    branding can deliver a highly visible punch. It has the ability to rev desire; and
    not surprisingly when it is the color of fire, danger, and blood on one hand; and
    love, sexuality and passion on the other. It is a bold, energetic and lively color
    that can symbolize strength, confidence and power.
  65. Orange – Fresh, Youthful, Creative & Adventurous
    Meanings: Blending the warmth of red and the optimism of yellow, orange
    communicates activity and energy. And of course it‘s hard not to go past orange
    as the color of, well, oranges, and all their vitamin c byproducts, which
    immediately makes orange feel fresh and healthy. Orange is not for everyone (it
    was certainly the color of the decade in the 1970s) and can therefore tap into
    associations of youthfulness, creativity and adventure.
  66. Yellow – Optimistic, Cheerful, Playful & Happy
    Meanings: Being the color of sunshine, yellow puts a smile on the dial. It is the
    most visible color from a distance (which is why it‘s used for street signs) and
    communicates cheerfulness, friendliness, joy and energy (who doesn‘t need
    more yellow in their life?) It can also be associated with mental clarity and
    intellect (again, who doesn‘t need more yellow?) However, yellow is also a
    cautionary color used in life vests, police cordoning tape and hazardous areas.
  67. Green – Natural, Vitality, Prestige & Wealth
    Meanings: Green has two very common meanings that are quite paradoxical;
    one being nature and the environment, and the other being finance and wealth.
    When it comes to nature, green represents plant life and growth and is
    consequently used to convey being ‗green‘ in the environmental, sustainable,
    organic, natural sense of the word. And of course green is, as the saying goes,
    ‗the color of money‘ (US money, that is) and therefore associated with wealth
    and stability.
  68. Blue – Communicative, Trustworthy, Calming & Depressed
    Meanings: Blue is the most universally preferred color, perhaps for its very
    versatile qualities. It is a favorite color for companies that wish to convey
    reliability, trustworthiness and communication (I‘m looking at you Facebook,
    Twitter and Samsung) and for expressing the authority and officialdom of
    organizations (oh, hey there Constable). It is also appreciated for it‘s calming
    and harmonious qualities being associated with the sea and sky. However, being
    associated with the emotional feeling of being ‗blue‘ it is also used to express
    sadness or depression.
  69. Purple – Royalty, Majesty, Spiritual & Mysterious
    Meanings: Purple is a low arousal color. It is traditionally associated with
    royalty, majesty or nobility as well as having a spiritual or mysterious quality.
    Darker shades often represent luxury or opulence while lighter lavender shades
    are quite feminine, sentimental and even nostalgic.
  70. Brown – Organic, Wholesome, Simple & Honest
    Meanings: Brown gets a lot of use in this era of organic and natural food,
    beauty and products. Nature inspired it represents a feeling of wholesomeness,
    orderliness, and being grounded. It is simple, strong, durable and honest and
    may express that your brand has better things to care about than superfluous
    color, when really… (mind trick!).
  71. Pink – Feminine, Sentimental, Romantic & Exciting
    Meanings: Pink has long been (stereotypically) associated with females and is
    often viewed as being ‗girly.‘ However, like all colors, pink is quite diverse and
    the level of intensity can impact its meaning. Pale pink, often marketed as the
    official color of little girls, represents sweetness while dusty pink can be more
    sentimental and light pink more romantic. At the other end of the scale, hot pink
    indicates youthfulness, energy, fun and excitement. A soft pink is now often
    referred to as ‘millennial pink’, for the generation’s fondness for the blush tone.
    Soft pink interiors, graphics and more are particularly popular with Generation
  72. Black – Sophisticated, Formal, Luxurious & Sorrowful
    Meanings: While color is more likely to increase brand recognition there‘s no
    reason black—when used appropriately—can‘t be just as distinctive, memorable
    and communicative of a brand‘s attributes. Black is to be taken seriously. It
    represents power, luxury, sophistication and exclusivity on one hand; and death,
    evil and mystery on the other. From formality to mourning to power, black is
    bold, classic and not to be fooled with.
  73. White – Purity, Simplicity, Innocence & Minimalism
    Meanings: White represents simplicity, purity, innocence and perfection. And if
    you had to identify one brand that has used white to convey its brand message to
    perfection it would have to be Apple – white represents the simplicity of the
    products in both their form and function. White also comes with a starkness or
    sterility about it, which is often used be designers to convey a minimalist
    aesthetic and clean, modern quality.
  74. Multicolor – Variety
    Meanings: Of course, what about mixing multiple colors in one logo, such as
    Google, the Olympics and NBC? Diverse color generally indicates variety – be
    it representative of people, countries, or offerings.
    Color is an important consideration in your brand identity system. Colors
    have a significant impact on people’s emotional state. They also have been
    shown to impact people‘s ability to concentrate and learn. They have a wide
    variety of specific mental associations. In fact, the effects are physiological,
    psychological, and sociological.
    For instance:
     Non-primary colors are more calming than primary colors.
     Blue is the most calming of the primary colors, followed closely by a
    lighter red.
     Test takers score higher and weight lifters lift more in blue rooms.
     Blue text increases reading retention.
     Yellow evokes cheerfulness. Houses with yellow trim or flower gardens
    sell faster.
     Reds and oranges encourage diners to eat quickly and leave. Red also
    makes food more appealing and influences people to eat more. (It is no
    coincidence that fast food restaurants almost always use these colors.)
     Pink enhances appetites and has been shown to calm prison inmates.
     Blue and black suppress appetites.
     Children prefer primary colors. (Notice that children‘s toys and books
    often use these colors.)
     Forest green and burgundy appeals to the wealthiest 3 percent of
    Americans and often raises the perceived price of an item.
     Orange is often used to make an expensive item seem less expensive.
     Red clothing can convey power.
     Red trim is used in bars and casinos because it can cause people to lose
    track of time.
     White is typically associated with cool, clean and fresh.
     Red is often associated with Christmas and orange with Halloween and
     Black clothes make people look thinner.
     Black is also associated with elegance and sophistication. It also seems
    Colors also have a functional impact on readability, eye-strain, ability to
    attract attention, ability to be seen at night, etc. This is important in choosing
    colors for signing, website pages, prints ads, and other marketing media.
     The most visible color is yellow.
     The most legible of all color combinations are black on yellow and green
    on white followed by red on white.
     It is no surprise that most traffic signs use these color combinations.
     Black on white is the easiest to read, on paper, and on computer screens.
     Hard colors (red, orange and yellow) are more visible and tend to make
    objects look larger and closer. They are easier to focus upon. They create
    excitement and cause people to over-estimate time.
     Soft colors (violet, blue and green) are less visible and tend to make
    objects look smaller and further away. They aren‘t as easy to focus upon.
    They have a calming effect, increase concentration, and cause people to
    under-estimate time.
    Usually, it is advantageous for a brand to consistently ―own‖ certain colors,
    which provide an additional recognition cue.
    14.Maps, Graphs & Charts:
    h. Maps: A map is a drawing on paper that shows location, size & other
    features of countries.
    i. Line / Pie / Bar graph: present numerical or statistical data.
    j. Charts : are used for mounting maps & graphs for better visual effects.
    Modes of communication
  75. Telephone – Telephone is a device that transmits speech at a distance through the
    medium of electronic waves. In 1876 telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
    Types of telephones:-
  76. Landline or standard telephones
  77. Cellular or Mobile phones: These are wireless devices that use radio waves to transmit
    sounds. The two main cellular systems in operation are GSM – Global System for Mobile
    Communications, and CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access.
  78. Satellite phones: These are used in areas where communication links are absent or
  79. Ethernet phones: There are digital phones which connect directly to a computer
    Telephone services: 1) Networking: – This works as a base for computer network and
    fax transmission.
    2) Teleconferencing and videoconferencing : – Sounds and video are transmitted via
    phone lines or satellites, so that people in different places and different countries can be
    communicate with one another at the same time.
    Telephone etiquette:
  80. Speak politely, precisely, clearly, confidently. Be positive & talk friendly with a
    smile in voice.
  81. Avoid shouting or speaking too low.
  82. Listen carefully and if a part of message is not clear, politely ask for repetition.
  83. While answering telephone calls, introduce yourself, your company & greet the
  84. Before making a call, one must be mentally prepared, if need be note down points.
  85. Make sure you have delivered the message completely and is understood by the
    receiving party.
    Advantages Disadvantages
  86. Time saving device. 1. Body language cannot be communicated.
  87. Immediate feedback 2. It is sometimes not time saving
  88. Legal validity 3. Call may be made at a wrong time.
  89. Intercom facility
  90. It provides a large range of services like
    STD (Subscriber Trunk dialing), ISD
    (International Subscriber dialing), call
    waiting, call forwarding etc.
  91. Fax: Fax is connected to telephone , can be used to send documents, photos, charts,
    graphs, drawings, diagrams, certificates etc. It scans a printed page, converts it into
    signals & transmit this signal over a telephone line to the receiving fax machine.
    Drawbacks – cost, time, quality.
  92. Computer –
  93. Parts of computers – input, output, storage, processing devices.
  94. What is software & hardware?
  95. Uses of computer.
  96. LAN, WAN, Internet.
  97. Uses of Internet – Search, distant learning, E-commerce, videoconferencing, E-mail ,
    social networking sites, cloud computing etc.
    Chapter IV
    Barriers to communication
    The word barrier means an obstacle, a hindrance or simply a problem that comes in a way of
    transmission of a message and blocks the process, either completely or partially.
    Different types of barriers are as follows:
  98. Physical or environmental barriers:
    a. Noise – The noise created by external factors like traffic, playing of loud music,
    trains and airplanes, or by crowds of people, affects our communication.
    b. Time & distance – Time becomes a physical barrier when people have to
    communicate across different time zones in different countries. The physical
    distance between people who need to communicate can also cause problems
    because it does not allow oral or face-to-face communication.
    c. Defects in communication system – Mechanical problems and defects in
    instruments of communication also create physical barriers, as in a faulty fax
    machine or typewriter. Similarly, a computer that hangs, or a dead telephone line
    can lead to non-transmission of messages. eg. No range in mobile, technical
    problem in mike or speakers.
    d. Wrong selection of medium – The sender selects the medium which is not
    familiar to the receiver.
    e. Physiological defects like stammering, hearing defects, mumbling while speaking
  99. Language or Semantic barriers:
    Language is the main medium of communication and words are its tools. Language
    proves to be a barrier at diferent levels, such as semantic (meaning), syntactic (grammar),
    phonological (pronunciation, intonation, pitch etc.) and finally linguistic (across
    languages) Thus, language barriers can arise in different ways:
    a. Jargon or unfamiliar terminology – There are some special terms or technical
    words used by people belonging to a certain group or field of work such as
    doctors, lawyers, computer software engineers or college students. They use
    words which are their own, specialised jargon which cannot be understood by
    anyone outside their group.
    b. Difference in language – Unfamiliar language becomes a barrier when people do
    not know each other‗s language. This barrier can be overcome by using a
    common medium of communication, as in a classroom. Translation is also an
    important way of overcoming this barrier.
    c. Words are of two kinds: extensional and intentional words. Extensional words are
    clear in their meaning and therefore do not create barriers – such as words like
    chair, garden etc. Intentional words are words that describe and they can be
    understood differently by different people, according to the meaning that a person
    gives to the word. Thus good, bad, beautiful are intentional words, and a simple
    sentence like she is a good girl. can create confusion because the meaning of
    the word ‗good‘ is unclear.
    d. Sometimes, the same word is used in different contexts, giving rise totally
    different meanings. A word like =hard‗, for example can be used in different
    ways: hard chair,
    hard-hearted, hard drink, having a hard time – all these use the same word but the
    meanings are different.
    e. Barriers can be created when we come across words, which have the same sound
    when pronounced, but which mean very different things. Examples: words like
    fair and fare; bear and bare; council and counsel.
  100. Psychological barriers:
    Psyche means mind. Psychological barriers are created in the mind. Communication is a
    mental activity and its aim is to create understanding. But the human mind is complex
    and not all communication can result in understanding. There are several kinds of
    psychological barriers which can come in the way of understanding.
    (a) Emotions: Emotions are among the most common psychological barriers to
    communication. The emotion may be connected to the communication received or it
    may be present in the sender‗s or receiver‗s mind, even before the communication takes
    place. In both cases, it acts as a barrier. Emotions can be positive, like happiness and joy,
    or negative, like fear, anger, mistrust etc. Both positive and negative emotions act as
    if they are not kept in check.
    (b) Prejudice: A prejudice is an opinion held by a person for which there is no rational
    basis or valid reason. It can be against something or someone, or in favour of it, but it
    becomes a barrier to a meaningful communication. Prejudices are based on ignorance and
    lack of
    information, e.g., prejudices about certain communities or groups of people.
    (c) Halo effect: Sometimes our reactions to people are not balanced or objective; they are
    of an extreme nature. Either we like a person so much that we can find no shortcomings
    in her/him, or we dislike someone so much that we can see nothing good in her/him. In
    both cases, we commit errors of judgment and fail to understand the person.
    (d) Self-image or different perceptions: Every person has in her/his mind a certain image
    of herself/himself. S/he thinks of herself/himself in a certain way. This is their perception
    of themselves, their self-image. One‗s self-image is the product of one‗s heredity, one‗s
    environment and one‗s experiences, and thus every person‗s self-image is unique and
    different from the others. Self-image can create a barrier because we accept
    which is compatible with our self-image. We avoid or reject communication, which goes
    against our perception of ourselves.
    (e) Closed Mind: A closed mind is one which refuses to accept an idea or opinion on a
    subject, because it is different from his idea. Such persons form their opinion on a
    subject, and then refuse to listen to anyone who has something different to say about it. A
    closed mind may be the result of some past experience or just habit. It is very difficult to
    remove this psychological barrier.
    (f) Status: Status refers to rank or position. It could be economic, social or professional
    status. In any organisation, hierarchy creates differences in rank, and this is a normal
    situation. Thus, status by itself does not cause barriers; but when a person becomes too
    conscious of his status, whether high or low, then status becomes a barrier. For instance,
    in a business organisation, a senior executive who is unduly conscious of his seniority
    will not communicate properly with his juniors, and will refrain from giving them the
    information. Similarly, if a junior is acutely conscious of his junior status, he will avoid
    communicating with his seniors, even when it is necessary
    (g) Inattentiveness and Impatience: Sometimes the receiver may not pay attention to the
    sender‗s message, or he may be too impatient to hear the message fully and properly.
    Such barriers are common in oral communication.
    Overcoming psychological barriers:
  101. Adopt flexible and open-minded attitude
  102. Training of listening skills
  103. Exposure to different environment, views will help to broaden outlook
  104. Listening with empathy helps in making oneself more adapting to other‘s perceptions.
  105. Cross-cultural barriers: Mary Allen Guffey defines communication as ,‖the complex
    system of values, traits, morals and customs shared by a society.‖
    Cultural diversity within a country, and cultural differences between people from
    different countries, are a major cause of barriers. This is because people are conditioned
    by their cultures, and they develop certain habits of working, communicating, eating,
    dressing etc. according to their cultural conditioning. They find it difficult to get through
    to people who come from an alien culture, and who have different habits. A simple thing
    like a greeting to
    welcome a person is vastly different in India from a greeting in, for example, an Arab
    country, or in Japan. Food and dress habits of a different culture can make a person
    uncomfortable. Concepts of space and time are also different across cultures; for
    Indians do not mind sitting close to each other and sharing space in offices or in public
    places. However, a European would not be able to tolerate such intrusive behaviour.
    Similarly, people who come from a culture where time is very valuable will be impatient
    with those who come from a culture with an easygoing attitude towards time, where
    everything is done in a slow, unhurried way.
    a. Cultural diversity
    b. Time
    c. Space
    d. Food
    e. Manners
    f. Decision making
    Overcoming Barriers :
    Barriers disrupt communication and interfere with understanding. They must be
    overcome if communication has to be effective.
    Physical barriers are comparatively easier to overcome. The use of loudspeakers and
    microphones can remove the barriers of noise and distance in crowded places like railway
    stations. Traffic signals and non-verbal gestures of the traffic policeman remove physical
    barriers on the roads. Technological advancement has
    helped in reducing the communication gap arising due to time and
    distance .It is possible to make an alternative arrangement, should
    the technological instruments fail. A back-up plan helps in tidying
    over any snag.
    Language or Semantic Barriers can be overcome if the sender and the receiver choose
    a language which both of them understand very well. Help from a translator or an
    interpreter also helps in overcoming the language barrier. Exposure to the target
    language and training oneself in the acquisition of skills of the given language too help in
    overcoming the language barrier. Language barriers can be avoided by careful study and
    accurate use of language. Clarity should be the main objective when using
    language. Jargon should be avoided.
    Psychological barriers, as also cross-cultural barriers are difficult to overcome, as
    they are difficult to identify and even more difficult to address. Even these can be
    avoided or reduced by adopting a flexible and open-minded attitude. The ultimate aim is
    to build bridges of understanding between people – that is the main aim of
    communication. Training oneself to listen to different views , exposing oneself to
    different environments help in broadening one‗s outlook and cultivating tolerance to
    multiple views. Teaching oneself to listen with empathy helps in making oneself more
    open to others ‗perceptions.
    While dealing with psychological or cross-cultural barriers the
    sender should make it a point to–
    (i) Use language that is politically neutral and correct.
    (ii) Present views in simple and objective manner
    (iii) Focus on the objective of communication
    Chapter V
    Importance of listening
  106. Listening is the first means of acquiring information
  107. Listening is the first means of learning new language
  108. Helps to solve problems
  109. Helps in framing plans and policies
  110. Helps to share information
  111. Helps in decision-making
  112. Helps to know organization
  113. Develops better relations
  114. Provides encouragement
    Nature of listening process:
    Listening is such a routine activity that most people do not even realize that they are poor
    listeners, and are, therefore, in need of developing their listening skills. Others may feel
    that listening is a very difficult task, perhaps, next to impossible to achieve. But the truth
    is that good listening habits can be cultivated, and with practice, much can be achieved.
    Understanding the complex process of listening, itself, may help people become good
    listeners. Listening involves the following inter-related steps in sequential order:
    . Receiving: This is a kind of physiological process. The sounds impinge on the listener‗s
    ear. It is only when he takes these in that he can go further in the process of getting at the
    . Attending: The listener has to focus his attention on the .message. to the exclusion of
    all other sounds that may be present in the immediate surroundings.
    . Interpreting: The sounds have to be interpreted, that is, the listener tries to understand
    the message that is being put across against the background of his own values, beliefs,
    ideas, expectations, needs, experience and background — and, of course, taking into
    account the speaker‗s viewpoint.
    . Remembering: This involves storing the message for future reference.
    . Evaluating: The listener makes a critical analysis of the information received, judging
    whether the message makes sense while separating fact from opinion.
    . Responding: The listener gives a verbal or nonverbal response, and takes action
    Barriers to listening:
  115. Distractions
    a. Semantic – The listener is confused about the actual meaning of a word, as
    the word has different meanings.
    b. Physical – This occurs when, for eg., the air-conditioning system or
    microphones fail; or there is noise in the surroundings; or, someone is
    constantly tapping on the table with his fingers.
    c. Mental – This occurs when the listener makes himself the central character
    of his daydreams and forgets the speaker.
  116. Faking attention or pretending to listen –
    This usually happens when the message consists of material of a difficult or
    uninteresting nature. The listener may not want to bother to understand the
    message. Sometimes this may happen when he is critical of the speaker‗s looks,
    style of speaking, or mannerisms.
  117. Defensive listening –
    This kind of listening takes place when the speaker‗s views challenge the listener‗s
  118. Prejudice – The listener‗s bias, negative attitude, preconceived notions, fears, or
    stress adversely affect listening.
  119. Constant focus on self – A person‗s ego may also adversely affect his listening.
    The Roman playwright, Terence, reveals this aspect of human nature when he
    says: .My closest relation is myself. A person may believe that he knows
    everything that the speaker is talking about and, therefore, does not need to listen.
  120. Information overload – The listener may be exposed to too many words or points
    and, therefore, be unable to take in everything. He should learn how to pick up the
    ones, and discard the rest.
  121. The thinking-speaking rate – The speaking rate is 125 – 150 words per minute,
    whereas the thinking rate is 400 words per minute. So the listener‗s mind is
    moving much faster than the speaker is able to speak. The extra, intervening time,
    before the speaker arrives at his next point, is usually spent in shifting one‗s
    mental focus, or in day dreaming.
  122. Short attention span – The natural attention span for human beings is short. This is
    not easy to rectify, except for making a special effort to concentrate and prolong
    one‗s attention span.
    Listening strategies:
  123. Preparation for listening –
    The environment must be made conducive to listening. Noise and disturbance can
    be kept
    out by closing doors, or using a soundproof room. Suitable arrangements for
    microphones and stationery should be made in advance. Interruptions must be
    prevented. By these means, the physical barriers can be eliminated, and the
    listener can focus his attention on the speaker.
  124. Background knowledge –
    The listener should train himself to listen intelligently, bearing in mind the
    speaker, the topic and the situation.
  125. Re-organize the material in mind –
    The listener should be able to recognize patterns used by the speaker, and should
    be able to identify the main / central point, and supporting points; s/he should reorganize the material in his mind according to certain headings so as to facilitate
  126. Focusing on the speaker‘s matter than manner –
    The listener should not be prejudiced by the personal or behavioural traits of the
    speaker or his style, but should focus on the content, intent, and argument of the
  127. Listening actively –
    Listening actively also involves being considerate to the speaker and empathising
    with him. By adopting an alert listening pose, the listener puts the speaker at his
    ease and places him in a better position to formulate and express his ideas. The
    listener should have a positive attitude towards a talk, believing that in every talk
    there is always at least one point or idea that will be of value and special
    significance to him.
  128. Listen with complete concentration –
    The listener should learn to differentiate between argument and evidence; idea and
    example; fact and opinion. He should attempt to pick out and paraphrase the
    important points while disregarding unimportant ones.
  129. Interaction –
    a. Do not interrupt – Allow the speaker to finish what he is saying before you
    begin to talk.
    b. Do not disturb the speaker by indulging in some undesirable form of
    activity, like talking to the person next to you, looking at your watch, or
    walking out, or appearing uninterested or distracted.
    c. Do not contradict the speaker
    d. Do not let your mind move on to anticipate what is going to be said next –
    just listen carefully to what the speaker is actually saying. If you are busy
    planning your replies, you are likely to miss important points, and make
    irrelevant or stupid statements.
    e. Adopt an open-minded attitude –
    Be open to new ideas, ask questions, seeking clarification of meaning,
    ideas, and thoughts; or to gather additional information, or to direct the
    flow of the conversation.
    f. Avoid passing comments or making remarks when the speaker is speaking
    g. Do not let your mind indulge in some other activity
    h. Only one person should speak at one time.
  130. Patience –
    Do not get restless or impatient. Be careful not to lose your temper.
  131. Motivation –
    The experience of listening is more rewarding if the listener is motivated and
    interested. Confidence and trust in the speaker are necessary.
    10.Provide positive feedback –
    By maintaining eye contact, using proper facial expressions, nodding from time to
    time, leaning forward, and so on, you put the speaker at his ease, encourage him
    and thus enable him to give of his best.
    11.Listen for vocal & no-verbal cues –
    By noting the speaker‗s tone of voice or facial expressions, it is possible to get at
    his meaning more effectively. Pay attention to what the speaker says as much as to
    what he leaves unsaid.
    12.Make good use of the time gap between speaking and thinking –
    Spend this =extra‗ time reflecting on what the speaker is saying. You could even
    jot down points or make brief notes on selected topics. Make a kind of mental
    summary, and evaluate what is being said. You may anticipate what the speaker is
    going to say next, but it is necessary to listen carefully to find out whether it is
    exactly what you expected or whether there is some difference. If there is a
    difference, it is important to consider what the difference is, and the reason for it.
    13.Introspection –
    The listener must honestly examine his existing listening habits, and consider
    whether he can improve upon them.
    14.Practicing listening skills –
    Train yourself to use your listening skills every time you have occasion to listen.
    Do not abandon the task of listening, especially if you find it difficult. Listening is
    an act of the will as much as a matter of habit. It depends on mental conditioning.
    Willingness to make an effort, therefore, matters.
    15.Adopting to different communication events –
    Effective listening includes the ability to adapt to several communication events,
    involving intercultural communication situations. The listener must be aware of
    factors like culture, gender, race, status, etc., and not allow them to adversely
    affect his listening. In this connection, tolerance, patience, and empathy are
    Styles of listening:
  132. Empathic listening –
    In this case we empathize with the speaker, and understand things from her/his
    point of view, allowing her/him the freedom to express her/his emotions.
  133. Informational listening –
    Here, the aim is to receive information. So the listener pays attention to the
    content, and makes decisions regarding the taking of notes; s/he also watches
    for related non-verbal cues, asks questions, and focuses on the replies. All this
    helps her/ him to assimilate the information.
  134. Evaluative listening –
    We are exposed to a great deal of material intended to persuade us to accept
    the speaker‗s point of view; we need to evaluate what we hear, and note only
    certain points that are of interest or use to us.
  135. Appreciative listening –
    We use this form of listening when we listen to our favourite music or watch
    an enjoyable television programme. In these instances, careful listening greatly
    enhances pleasure and appreciation.
  136. Critical listening –
    This is when we listen critically and analytically, carefully considering the
    topic of the argument, the intentions of the speaker, his omissions, his point of
    view; his credibility and so on.
    Business Ethics
    What is a ‘Business’?
    A business is an organization or enterprising entity engaged in commercial, industrial or
    professional activities. A company transacts business activities through the production of
    a good, offering of a service or retailing of already manufactured products. A business
    can be a for-profit entity or a nonprofit organization that operates to fulfill a charitable
    The term business has different meaning depending on the context.::
  137. The commercial activities of an individual or a group engaging in some type of
    financial transaction. Eg.: bargain between two individuals. You are buying
    something in exchange of money.
  138. An organization that is formed to operate some type of service or commercial
    a. For Profit organization. Eg: The organisation‘s sole purpose can be to earn
    profit and can range from a sole proprietorship to a multinationals
    publically traded cooperation.
    b. Not-For-Profit business. Eg. Farming.
  139. The type of commerce in which someone engages. For eg:
    a. Nike is in sports apparel and equipment business.
    b. General Motors is in automobile business.
    What is Business Ethics?
    Business ethics is the study of proper business policies and practices regarding potentially
    controversial issues, such as corporate governance, insider trading, bribery,
    discrimination, corporate social responsibility and fiduciary responsibilities. Law often
    guides business ethics, while other times business ethics provide a basic framework
    that businesses may choose to follow to gain public acceptance.
    Business Ethics:
    The system of laws and guidelines by which business professionals and corporations
    operate in a fair, legal, and moral fashion.
    Business Ethics is a broad topic covering following:
  140. Globalization
  141. Executive Pay
  142. Earnings Management
  143. Political Contributions
  144. Marketing practices
  145. Bribery
  146. Tax avoidance
  147. Corporate governance
  148. Fiduciary responsibilities
    10.Corporate Social responsibility
    11.Intellectual property
    12.Insider trading
    16.Health and Safety
    17.Sales practices
    19.Human resource Management
    The organization where ethics are followed, trust develops between employees and
    management as well as between the public and cooperation.
    Thus, Business ethics lead to a more productive workplace.
    Importance of Business Ethics
    Ethics concern an individual’s moral judgements about right and wrong. Decisions taken within
    an organisation may be made by individuals or groups, but whoever makes them will be
    influenced by the culture of the company. The decision to behave ethically is a moral one;
    employees must decide what they think is the right course of action. This may involve rejecting
    the route that would lead to the biggest short-term profit.
    Businesses around the world are designing and implementing business ethics programs to
    address the legal, ethical, social responsibility, and environmental issues they face. By
    addressing these issues in a systematic way, enterprises can improve their own business
    performance, expand opportunities for growth, and contribute to the development of social
    capital in their markets. They can realize specific business benefits, such as:
  149. Enhanced reputations and good will
  150. Reduced risks and costs
  151. Protection from their own employees and agents
  152. Stronger competitive positions
  153. Expanded access to capital, credit, and foreign investment
  154. Increased profits
  155. Sustained long-term growth
  156. International respect for enterprises and emerging markets Enterprises that
    excel in these areas create a climate of excellence for their employees,
    shareholders, and communities, and contribute to the economic wellbeing of
    their countries.
    Ethical behaviour and corporate social responsibility can bring significant benefits
    to a business. For example, they may:
     attract customers to the firm’s products, thereby boosting sales and profits
     make employees want to stay with the business, reduce labour turnover and
    therefore increase productivity
     attract more employees wanting to work for the business, reduce recruitment costs
    and enable the company to get the most talented employees
     attract investors and keep the company’s share price high, thereby protecting the
    business from takeover.
    Unethical behaviour or a lack of corporate social responsibility may damage a firm’s
    reputation and make it less appealing to stakeholders. Profits could fall as a result.
    Several factors play a role in the success of a company that are beyond the scope
    of financial statements alone. Organizational culture, management philosophy and ethics
    in business each have an impact on how well a business performs in the long term. No
    matter the size, industry or level of profitability of an organization, business ethics are
    one of the most important aspects of long-term success.
    Ethics in Leadership
    The management team sets the tone for how the entire company runs on a day-to-day
    basis. When the prevailing management philosophy is based on ethical practices and
    behavior, leaders within an organization can direct employees by example and guide
    them in making decisions that are not only beneficial to them as individuals, but also to
    the organization as a whole. Building on a foundation of ethical behavior helps create
    long lasting positive effects for a company, including the ability to attract and retain
    highly talented individuals and building and maintaining a positive reputation within the
    community. Running a business in a ethical manner from the top down builds a stronger
    bond between individuals on the management team, further creating stability within the
    Employee Ethics
    When management is leading an organization in an ethical manner, employees follow in
    those footsteps. Employees make better decisions in less time with business ethics as a
    guiding principle; this increases productivity and overall employee morale. When
    employees complete work in a way that is based on honesty and integrity, the whole
    organization benefits. Employees who work for a corporation that demands a high
    standard of business ethics in all facets of operations are more likely to perform their job
    duties at a higher level and are also more inclined to stay loyal to that organization.
    Business Ethics Benefits
    The importance of business ethics reaches far beyond employee loyalty and morale or the
    strength of a management team bond. As with all business initiatives, the ethical
    operation of a company is directly related to profitability in both the short and long term.
    The reputation of a business from the surrounding community, other businesses and
    individual investors is paramount in determining whether a company is a worthwhile
    investment. If a company’s reputation is less than perfect based on the perception that it
    does not operate ethically, investors are less inclined to buy stock or otherwise support its
    With consistent ethical behavior comes increasingly positive public image, and there are
    few other considerations as important to potential investors and current shareholders. To
    retain a positive image, businesses must be committed to operating on an ethical
    foundation as it relates to treatment of employees, respect to the surrounding
    environment and fair market practices in terms of price and consumer treatment.
    Personal integrity at the workplace
    Integrity comes in many forms, but honesty and dependability are two traits that are
    expected in most workplace situations. Without responsible behavior, distrust can make a
    work environment tense and uncomfortable. A strong work ethic shows co-workers and
    clients that you’re reliable and take your responsibilities seriously. Polite communication,
    respectable behavior and fiscal responsibility also help you stand out as a trustworthy
  157. Work When You’re on the Clock
    Working diligently when you’re on the clock is a clear example of workplace integrity.
    Socializing, surfing the Internet, making personal phone calls, texting and frequent
    snacking are activities that detract from work time. Saving those activities for break time
    will show your boss, co-workers and customers that you work hard when you’re on the
    clock. The career website Calibrate Coaching recommends honoring your work hours by
    not stealing time from your employer. Even if you don’t actually clock in and out with a
    time card, focusing on your work responsibilities while you’re at your desk, work station
    or production area will showcase your strong work habits.
  158. Follow Company Policies
    Abiding by company policies is a powerful way to demonstrate integrity. Cutting
    corners and neglecting to follow workplace regulations can lead to mistakes, problems
    and even dangerous situations. Your willingness to properly record financial transactions,
    safely dispense of hazardous or toxic materials, follow company protocol for dealing with
    clients, perform clean-up or set-up procedures and properly maintain equipment shows
    others that you’re not just looking for the easy way out. Establishing yourself as a
    trustworthy worker who submits to company policies shows your boss and co-workers
    that you’ll faithfully carry out your duties.
  159. Respect Co-workers and Build Trust
    Respecting those you work with reveals your desire to create a healthy work
    environment. Polite communication, appropriate interactions and respect for co-workers’
    thoughts and ideas demonstrate your ability to look beyond your own interests to pursue
    team-centered work goals. As you deal with co-workers honestly and respectfully, you
    establish a level of trust with them. According to Amy Rees Anderson, a contributor to
    Forbes magazine, those who trust you will spread the word of that trust to their
    associates, and word of your character will spread like wildfire.
  160. Exhibit Responsible Behavior
    Integrity in the workplace often stems from moral and ethical behavior. Making sure
    there’s no reason to question your conduct is one of the best ways to prove that you are an
    honest and dependable employee. Avoid using company products or equipment for
    personal use and submit exact receipts for travel or meal reimbursements. Don’t overpromise what you can’t provide and strive to meet deadlines. Work productively and
    cooperate during company meetings so you don’t appear lazy or apathetic, and don’t call
    in sick if you aren’t. By exhibiting responsible behavior, you don’t give co-workers or
    clients the opportunity to question your integrity.
    Computer Ethics
    The concept of computer ethics originated in 1950 with the publication of Nobert
    Wiener,s book entitles ―The human use of human beings,.
    Computer ethics involves a set of moral principles that regulate the use of computers.
    The Ten Commandments are as follows:
     Do not use the computer in ways that may harm other people.
    Explanation: This commandment says that it is unethical to use a computer to
    harm another user. It is not limited to physical injury. It includes harming or
    corrupting other users’ data or files. The commandment states that it is wrong to
    use a computer to steal someone’s personal information. Manipulating or
    destroying files of other users is ethically wrong. It is unethical to write programs,
    which on execution lead to stealing, copying or gaining unauthorized access to
    other users’ data. Being involved in practices like hacking, spamming, phishing or
    cyber bullying does not conform to computer ethics.
     Do not use computer technology to cause interference in other users’ work.
    Explanation: Computer software can be used in ways that disturb other users or
    disrupt their work. Viruses, for example, are programs meant to harm useful
    computer programs or interfere with the normal functioning of a computer.
    Malicious software can disrupt the functioning of computers in more ways than
    one. It may overload computer memory through excessive consumption of
    computer resources, thus slowing its functioning. It may cause a computer to
    function wrongly or even stop working. Using malicious software to attack a
    computer is unethical.
     Do not spy on another person’s computer data.
    Explanation: We know it is wrong to read someone’s personal letters. On the same
    lines, it is wrong to read someone else’s email messages or files. Obtaining data
    from another person’s private files is nothing less than breaking into someone’s
    room. Snooping around in another person’s files or reading someone else’s
    personal messages is the invasion of his privacy. There are exceptions to this. For
    example, spying is necessary and cannot be called unethical when it is done
    against illegitimate use of computers. For example, intelligence agencies working
    on cybercrime cases need to spy on the internet activity of suspects.
     Do not use computer technology to steal information.
    Explanation: Stealing sensitive information or leaking confidential information is
    as good as robbery. It is wrong to acquire personal information of employees from
    an employee database or patient history from a hospital database or other such
    information that is meant to be confidential. Similarly, breaking into a bank
    account to collect information about the account or account holder is wrong.
    Illegal electronic transfer of funds is a type of fraud. With the use of technology,
    stealing of information is much easier. Computers can be used to store stolen
     Do not contribute to the spread of misinformation using computer technology.
    Explanation: Spread of information has become viral today, because of the
    Internet. This also means that false news or rumors can spread speedily through
    social networking sites or emails. Being involved in the circulation of incorrect
    information is unethical. Mails and pop-ups are commonly used to spread the
    wrong information or give false alerts with the only intent of selling products.
    Mails from untrusted sources advertising certain products or spreading some hardto-believe information, are not uncommon. Direct or indirect involvement in the
    circulation of false information is ethically wrong. Giving wrong information can
    hurt other parties or organizations that are affected on that particular theme.
     Refrain from copying software or buying pirated copies. Pay for software
    unless it is free.
    Explanation: Like any other artistic or literary work, software is copyrighted. A
    piece of code is the original work of the individual who created it. It is copyrighted
    in his/her name. In case of a developer writing software for the organization she
    works for, the organization holds the copyright for it. Copyright holds true unless
    its creators announce it is not. Obtaining illegal copies of copyrighted software is
    unethical. It is not easy to do such things and in the end it will just be copied
     Do not use someone else’s computer resources unless authorized to.
    Explanation: Multi-user systems have user specific passwords. Breaking into some
    other user’s password, thus intruding her private space is unethical. It is not ethical
    to hack passwords for gaining unauthorized access to a password-protected
    computer system. Accessing data that you are not authorized to access or gaining
    access to another user’s computer without her permission is not ethical. Privacy
    will always be applied to such resources and were not supposed to get exposed and
    hack in such ways that is not yours.
     It is wrong to claim ownership on a work which is the output of someone else’s
    Explanation: Programs developed by a software developer are her property. If he
    is working with an organization, they are the organization’s property. Copying
    them and propagating them in one’s own name is unethical. This applies to any
    creative work, program or design. Establishing ownership on a work which is not
    yours is ethically wrong. Originality of any software/programs are to be keep safe
    and trying to claim ownership will cause a viral disputes.
     Before developing a software, think about the social impact it can have.
    Explanation: Looking at the social consequences that a program can have,
    describes a broader perspective of looking at technology. A computer software on
    release, reaches millions. Software like video games and animations or educational
    software can have a social impact on their users. When working on animation
    films or designing video games, for example, it is the programmer’s responsibility
    to understand his target audience/users and the effect it may have on them. For
    example, a computer game for kids should not have content that can influence
    them negatively. Similarly, writing malicious software is ethically wrong. A
    software developer/development firm should consider the influence their code can
    have on the society at large.
     In using computers for communication, be respectful and courteous with the
    fellow members.
    Explanation: The communication etiquette we follow in the real world applies to
    communication over computers as well. While communicating over the Internet,
    one should treat others with respect. One should not intrude others’ private space,
    use abusive language, make false statements or pass irresponsible remarks about
    others. One should be courteous while communicating over the web and should
    respect others’ time and resources. Also, one should be considerate with a novice
    computer user.
    Business Ethics and Media:
    Care must also be taken when making statements to the media that information given is
    correct and not misleading. Information which, if made public would be likely to have
    material effect on the share price or about certain transactions such as mergers,
    acquisitions or disposals or transactions with related parties is subject to specific rules.
    Such matters should be referred to the relevant Regional General Counsel. Enquiries
    from the media should be referred to company media relations experts and statements
    should only be made by designated spokespersons.
    Only authorised spokespersons are permitted to represent the company in media or
    investor relations.
    Social media and Business Ethics
    Social media is an umbrella term used to describe social interaction through a suite of
    technology based tools, many of which are internet based. This includes, but is not
    limited to, internet forums,
    Networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and GooglePlus, webcasts, and
    Social media exhibits unique characteristics when compared t traditional media forms.
    Its speed and scope means that once content is publish edit is available instantaneously,
    to a potentially global audience. Social media tools tend to be free or available at a very
    low cost relative to other forms of media and do not require users to have much
    technical knowledge. This allows larger numbers of individuals to access and publish
    material than with traditional media forms.
    Social media is usually interactive in a way that traditional media is not, so users can
    comment on and edit published material, making it difficult to control content. Social
    media blurs private/public boundaries when individuals
    ndworklifealsobecomeblurredascompaniesmakeuseofsocial media (originally designed
    for personal use) for business purposes, and likewise employees access personalities
    while at work. A 2011DLA Piper survey found social media is used for personal and
    work related activities by 95% of employees.
    These unique characteristics of social media pose ethical challenges for business, through
    employees use of social media on behalf of the company, as well as their personal use.
    Corporate Social Responsibility
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a business approach that contributes to
    sustainable development by delivering economics, social and environmental benefits for
    all stakeholders.
    CSR is a concept with many definitions and practices. The way it is understood and
    implemented differs greatly.
    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a business approach that contributes to
    sustainable development by delivering economic, socil and environmental benefits for all
    CSR is a concept with many definitions and practices. The way it is understood and
    implemented differs greatly for each company and country. Moreover, CSR is a very
    broad concept that addresses many and various topics such as human rights, corporate
    governance, health and safety, environmental effects, working conditions and
    contribution to economic development. Whatever the definition is, the purpose of CSR is
    to drive change towards sustainability.
    Examples of Corporate Social Responsibility in India
    Tata Group
    Tata Group in India has a range of CSR projects, most of which are community
    improvement programs. For example, it is a leading provider of maternal and child health
    services, family planning, and has provided 98 percent immunization in Jamshedpur. The
    company also endorses sports as a way of life. It has established a football academy,
    archery academy, and promotes sports among employees. It offers healthcare services all
    over the country with programs like rural health development.
    Tata Group also has an organized relief program in case of natural disasters, including
    long-term treatment and rebuilding efforts. It did laudable work during the Gujarat
    earthquakes and Orissa floods. It also supports education, with over 500 schools, and also
    is a benefactor of the arts and culture. It has done abundant work in improving the
    environment and local populations around its industries.
    Aptech a leading education player with a global presence that has played a broad and
    continued role in encouraging and nurturing education throughout the country since its
    inception. As a global player with complete solutions-providing capabilities, Aptech has
    a long history of participating in community activities. It has, in association with leading
    NGOs, provided computers at schools, education to the deprived, and training and
    Infosys is aggressively involved in a variety of community growth programs. In 1996, the
    company created the Infosys Foundation as a not-for-profit trust to which it contributes
    up to 1 percent of profits after tax every year. Moreover, the Education and Research
    Department at Infosys also works with employee volunteers on community development
    The management team at Infosys continues to set examples in the area of corporate
    citizenship and has involved itself vigorously in key national bodies. They have taken
    initiatives to work in the areas of research and education, community service, rural
    outreach programs, employment, healthcare for the poor, education, arts and culture, and
    welfare activities undertaken by the Infosys Foundation.
    Mahindra & Mahindra
    At Mahindra & Mahindra, The K. C. Mahindra Education Trust was established in 1953
    with the purpose of promoting education. Its vision is to renovate the lives of people in
    India through education and financial assistance across age groups and across income
    strata. The K. C. Mahindra Education Trust undertakes a number of education plans,
    which make a difference to the lives of worthy students. The Trust has provided more
    than Rs. 7.5 crore in the form of grants, scholarships and loans. It promotes education
    mostly by the way of scholarships. The Nanhi Kali (children) project has over 3,300
    children under it and the company aims to increase the number to 10,000 in the next two
    years by reaching out to the underprivileged children, especially in rural areas
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