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The organisms of this kingdom have a true vertebral column and the internal skeleton structure.

Classification of Vertebrata

· Vertebrates are further classified as −

o Pisces

o Amphibia

o Reptilia

o Aves

o Mammalia

· Let’s discuss each of them in brief −


· The organisms of this group are typically different types of fishes.

· Fishes can live only in water.

· The skin fish is covered with scales/plates.

· Fish use oxygen dissolved in water by using gills


· The tail of fish helps in their movements.

· Fishes are cold-blooded organisms and their hearts have only two chambers.

· Fishes lay eggs.


· The organisms of amphibia have mucus glands in the skin, and they have three-chambered heart.

· Amphibian can live in water as well as on land.


· The organisms of amphibian respire through either gills or lungs.

· The organisms of amphibia lay eggs.


· The organisms of this group are cold bolded.


· The organisms of reptilia lay eggs with tough coverings.


· The organisms of Aves group are warm-blooded.

· The organisms of Aves group lay eggs except a few, such as bat.


· Most of the Aves have feathers.


· The organisms of Mammalia group are warm-blooded and they have four-chambered hearts.

· Mammalia are typically characterized for their mammary glands.

· Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the young one.

· Most of the mammals produce live baby; however, a few of mammals, such as, the platypus and the echidna lay eggs.


· Mammals’ skin has hairs along with sweat and oil glands.

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