Decision Making and team work

                                            Decision Making


  • Understanding Decision making
  • Types of decisions
  • The decision making process
  • How to make better decisions

Understanding Decision Making

  • Problems
    • A discrepancy between a desirable and an actual situation.
    • Well structured, ill-structured, and complex problems.
    • Decision
    • A choice made between available alternatives.
    • Decision Making
    • The process of developing and analyzing alternatives and choosing from among them.

Types of Decisions

  • Programmed Decision
    • A decision that is repetitive and routine and can be made by using a definite, systematic procedure.
    • Nonprogrammed Decision
    • A decision that is unique and novel.”

The Decision-Making Process

  • Define the problem.
  • Clarify your objectives.
  • Identify alternatives.
  • Analyze the consequences.
  • Make a choice.

Step 1. Define the Problem

  1. Start by writing down your initial assessment of the problem.
  2. Dissect the problem.
    1. What triggered this problem ?
    1. Why am I even thinking about solving this problem?

Step 2. Clarify Your Objectives

  1. Write down all the concerns you hope to address through your decision.
  2. Convert your concerns into specific, concrete objective

Step 3. Identify Alternatives

  1. Generate as many alternatives as you can yourself.
  2. Expand your search, by checking with other people, including experts

Step 3. Identify Alternatives

  1. Generate as many alternatives as you can yourself.

2. Expand your search, by checking with other people, including experts

Step 4. Analyze the Consequences

  1. Mentally put yourself into the future.
  2. Eliminate any clearly inferior alternatives.

Step 5. Make a Choice

  • Analyses are useless unless the right choice is made.
    •  Simply review the consequences of each alternative, and choose the alternative that maximizes benefits.

How To Make Better Decisions

  1. Increase Your Knowledge
    1. Ask questions.
    1. Get experience.
    1. Use consultants.
    1. Do your research.
  2. Use Your Intuition
    1. A  process whereby a person instinctively makes a decision based on his or her accumulated feeling.knowledge and experience.

How To Make Better Decisions

  • Weigh the Pros and Cons(positive and Negative)
    • Quantify realities by sizing up your options, and taking into consideration the relative importance of each of your objectives.
  • Don’t Overstress the Finality of Your Decision
  • Make Sure the Timing Is Right

What is a TEAM?

A group of people working together to achieve

              a common goal


The ability to cooperate and communicate effectively with others

              to achieve a common goal

TEAMWORK                                                                            INDIVIDUAL WORK

Agree on goals / milestones                                            Work on tasks

  •   Establish to be activities completed                       Work on new / revised tasks
  •   Communicate / monitor progress                          Research / development

           Solve problems                                                                  Net working

  •   Interpret results
  •   Agree completion of project

Stages of Team Development

Forming (assemble team; deal with ambiguity)

Storming (deal with criticism; develop ideas)

Norming  (procedures, cohesion)

Performing (cooperation)

Key Teamwork SKILLS

  1. INTERPERSONALTrust / acceptanceCommunicationCollaborative problem-solvingConflict resolution
  2.  SELF / PROJECT MANAGEMENTGoal settingPlanningTask co-ordinationPerformance management

A few TEAMWORK guidelines…

  1. Effective communication
  2. Team Working Agreement
  3. Effective meetings
  4. Project management
  5. Conflict management
  1. Effective communication
  • Communicate openly & supportively
  •  Listen openly
  •  Interpret nonverbal messages
  •  Give useful feedback
  •  Receive feedback effectively

2.Team Working Agreement

  • decision-making
    •  problem-solving approaches
    •  management of conflict / differences
    •  responsibilities & conduct

3. Meeting Guidelines (sample)

  • Project meetings will be held every                .
  • Meetings will be called by                                        .
  • Meetings will begin and end on time.
  • Decisions will be made by consensus/ majority rule/anarchy.
  • Role of scribe will rotate.
  • Minutes will be issued by e-mail within 24 hours of each meeting.
  • Exceptions allowable/not allowable.
  • Project Management
  • Start with consensus on project GOAL
  • Then work to a project PLAN
  • Conflict
  • People typically fear and avoid conflict
  • Conflict is good to generate ideas for team work
  • However, dynamic organizations use conflict as a CREATIVE FORCE.

Key Features of Teamwork


  • Communicate well; listen openly


  • Work to the plan to keep motivation high
    • Update the plan as things change


  • Accept and work with/through conflict
    • Develop a constructive conflict style