A detective, sometimes referred to as an investigator, normally works with a law enforcement agency. Called in for specific situations, a detective collects evidence and analyzes the facts in a criminal case. Duties of a detective generally include interviewing witnesses and suspects, examining records involved with a case, observing potential suspects, and taking part in arrests.
Detectives and investigators work on a full-time basis with the likelihood of paid overtime. Shifts during the weekends and the night are common for those without seniority on a police force. There can be great personal reward in serving the public’s needs for protection and justice. The career carries a higher-than-average risk of confrontation with criminals, personal injury, and even death.
Degree Level : High school diploma (required); bachelor’s degree (may be required)
Degree Field : Criminal justice or law enforcement
Experience : Several years (varies by employer)
Key Skills: Keen perception, leadership skills, communication, multitasking, physical stamina, basic computer skill and experience with software for crime scene management, crime information databases and computer-aided composite drawing; comfortable with handcuffs, polygraphs and fingerprinting and surveillance equipment.
Median Salary (2015) : $77,210 (for detectives and criminal investigators, 2014)
Sources: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, O*Net OnLine
A high school diploma is required to work as a detective. In some cases a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice or law enforcement may be needed. Experience in law enforcement is usually required, but the amount varies by employer. The key skills needed by a detective include:
Basic computer skills
Experience with software for crime scene management, crime information databases, and computer-aided composite drawing
Comfortable using handcuffs, polygraphs, and fingerprinting and surveillance equipment
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median annual salary for detectives and criminal investigators in 2015 was $77,210.
Steps to Becoming a Detective
There are four steps you can take to become a detective.
Step 1: Earn a College Degree
Detectives usually begin their careers as police officers. Although a GED or high school diploma may be all that’s required for some police officer positions, many agencies require a college degree in criminal justice, law enforcement, or a related field. Both associate’s and bachelor’s degree programs are available for aspiring detectives. Students may take courses in criminal law, criminology, human relations, judicial function, forensic science, and criminal procedure.
It is also a good idea to take foreign language courses. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicates that proficiency in a foreign language can be beneficial for aspiring detectives, especially in urban surroundings. Some programs also include an internship experience during which a student can get real-world insight into the field.
Step 2: Complete a Police Training Academy
In order to be eligible to be trained as a police officer, an individual must be at least 21 years old and a U.S. citizen. He or she may also have to pass drug and polygraph tests. Police recruits must complete training academy programs and often pass written and physical tests before beginning to serve as officers. Individual police departments, and state and federal agencies, offer these programs. They include a mixture of physical training and classroom study in areas such as firearm training, self-defense, traffic control, and first aid. Police academy graduates should have a clear understanding of state and local law.
Step 3: Develop Skills and Fitness
Detectives should maintain excellent physical and mental health. They can do this by engaging in regular exercise and fitness training, which better, equips them for handling danger and stress. Detectives can keep a sharp mind by brushing up on new techniques and technology. For example, studying computer forensics can be extremely useful because of the increase in cybercrime.
Detectives must be very perceptive and observant to do their jobs. The ability to pay keen attention to detail is a very important quality for a detective. Individuals should cultivate these skills while on the job, paying close attention to crime scenes and accidents and learning how to capture details in reports.
Step 4: Build Work Experience
Detectives typically are chosen from existing police officers; thus, aspiring detectives should express their interest to superior officers to be kept in mind for promotion. Many agencies require police officers to serve at least three years before becoming eligible for detective positions. Promotion within agencies is generally based on an individual’s position on a promotion list, scores on agency exams, and an evaluation of his or her performance as a police officer. According to the BLS, growth in this field is expected to stay about the same in coming years, but those with more experience and military training will likely have better professional, prospects.