Microorganisms: Friend and Foe, , heading 1

Microorganisms: Friend and Foe

Introduction

· The living organisms (available around us), which we cannot see with our naked eyes, are known as microorganisms or microbes.

· Microorganisms are classified into the following four major groups −

o Bacteria

o Fungi

o Protozoa

o Algae

Viruses

· Viruses are also microscopic microorganism.

· Viruses get reproduced only inside the cells of the host organism, which may be a bacterium, plant, or animal.

· The common ailments, such as cold, influenza (flu), and coughs are caused by viruses.

· The serious diseases, such as polio and chicken pox are also caused by viruses.

· The diseases like dysentery and malaria are caused by protozoans.

· The diseases like typhoid and tuberculosis (TB) are caused by bacteria.

· The single celled microorganisms are known as bacteria, algae, and protozoa.

· The multicellular microorganisms are known as fungi and algae.

· The microorganism can survive in any type of environment ranging from ice cold to hot desert.

· Microorganisms are also found in the bodies of animals and human beings.

· Microorganisms, such as amoeba, can live alone; whereas the fungi and bacteria live in colonies.

· Some of the microorganisms are beneficial to us in many ways whereas some others are harmful and cause diseases to us.

Friendly Microorganisms

· Microorganisms are used for various purposes, such as preparation of curd, bread, cake; production of alcohol; cleaning up of the environment; preparation of medicines; etc.

· In agriculture, microorganisms are used to increase soil fertility by nitrogen fixation.

· The bacterium lactobacillus helps in the formation of curd.

· The microorganisms, yeast is used for the commercial production of alcohol and wine.

· For the large scale use of yeast, it is grown on natural sugars present in grains like wheat, barley, rice, crushed fruit juices, etc.

· The process of conversion of sugar into alcohol (by yeast) is known as fermentation.

· Streptomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin are some of the commonly used antibiotics; these are made from fungi and bacteria.

· These days, antibiotics are mixed with the feed of livestock and poultry that check microbial infection in the animals.

· Several diseases, such as cholera, tuberculosis, smallpox and hepatitis can be prevented by vaccination.

· In 1798, Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine for smallpox.

Harmful Microorganisms

· The microorganisms that cause diseases to human beings, animals, and plants, are known as pathogens.

· Pathogens enter into humans’ body through the air while breathing, the water while drinking, or the food while eating.

· Some pathogens are transmitted by direct contact with an infected person or carried through an animal.

· The microbial diseases that normally spread from an infected person to a healthy person through air, water, food or physical contact are known as communicable diseases. E.g. cholera, common cold, chicken pox, tuberculosis, etc.

· Female Anopheles mosquito carries the parasite of malaria and known as carrier.

· Female Aedes mosquito carries the parasite of dengue virus.

Human Diseases

· The following table illustrates some Common Human Diseases caused by Microorganisms –

Human Disease

Causative Microorganism

Mode of Transmission

Tuberculosis

Bacteria

Air

Measles

Virus

Air

Chicken Pox

Virus

Air/Contact

Polio

Virus

Air/Water

Cholera

Bacteria

Water/Food

Typhoid

Bacteria

Water

Hepatitis B

Virus

Water

Malaria

Protozoa

Mosquito

Microorganisms causing Disease in Animals

· In 1876, Robert Köch discovered the bacterium (Bacillus anthracis), which causes anthrax disease.

· Anthrax, a dangerous disease caused by a bacterium, affects both human and cattle.

· Foot and mouth disease of cattle is caused by a virus.

· The following table illustrates some Common Plant Diseases caused by Microorganisms –

Plant Disease

Causative Microorganism

Mode of Transmission

Citrus canker

Bacteria

Air

Rust of wheat

Fungi

Air, seeds

Yellow vein mosaic of bhindi (Okra)

Virus

Insects

Food Preservation

· Salts and edible oils are the common chemicals usually used to check the growth of microorganisms, they are known as preservatives.

· Sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite are also used as common preservatives.

· Common salt is usually used to preserve meat and fish for ages.

· Sugar reduces the moisture content, which prevents the growth of bacteria; therefore, Jams, jellies, and squashes are preserved by sugar.

· Use of oil and vinegar averts spoilage of pickles, as bacteria cannot live in such kind of environment.

· When the milk is heated at about 700C for 15 to 30 seconds and then swiftly chilled and stored; the process prevents the growth of microbes. This process was conceptualized by Louis Pasteur; therefore, it is known as pasteurization.

Nitrogen Cycle

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